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US CHINA (IMPORT TAX)
 Suraj Kumar  
 1 April 2018  
Art

Followed by the founding of the People’s Republic of China, USA and China have a long period of estrangement. The relation between US and China is very strong yet complex. The relations here refer to the international relations between both the countries. There are a huge amount of trade between both the countries make it somewhat political positive relations, yet some significant issues exist. The relation between the two has been described as the world’s most important bilateral relationship of the century by the world leaders. The countries are neither friends nor foes. The United States and China are clearly not allies. The United States has sought to build positive, comprehensive and cooperative relations with China by expanding their areas of cooperation and also mutually agreeing to the areas of disagreement. There are four annual dialogues held between the United States and China; the Diplomatic and Security Dialogue, the Comprehensive Economic Dialogue, the Law Enforcement and cybersecurity Dialogue, and the Social and Cultural Issues Dialogue which serves as a unique platform to promote bilateral understanding, discuss differences, expand consensus, increase cooperation, and build mutual trust between the two. The United States has put great emphasis on the need for both countries to enhance bilateral trust through formal dialogues, high-level exchanges, and expansion of people ties to ties. The United States approach to its economic relations with China has two major elements which are integrating China into the global, rules-based trading and economic system and also expanding United States exporters' and investors' access to the Chinese market.Recently Trump has directed the US trade representative to level tariffs about $50 billion worth Chinese imports. The mainstream media has been full of these scenarios past few weeks concerning about the potential for a China-US trade war, given that the tariff impositions by United States President Donald Trump imposed upon China in order to stop steel dumping and to protect the American jobs. Trump has increased the tariffs on Chinese imports in order to pressurize China to reduce its tariff rates, regardless of the number of products provided by China to the United States of America where the profit margin is set by United States of America itself. In addition, Trump has also planned to impose new investment restrictions to take strict actions against China at the World Trade Organisation. The move, on the steel and aluminum tariffs also took aim at China, which is heightening concerns of a global trade war that could destabilize the global economy. The US is planning to continue to engage diplomatically with China to reduce the trade imbalance between both countries. It is said that the tariffs would focus on the theft of US technologies. The investigation concluded that China has stolen United States companies into turning over their intellectual property through a series of state-run structural maneuvers, which includes its requirement for foreign companies partners with Chinese companies to access the Chinese market. The investigation has claimed that China has stolen US intellectual property by hacking US computer networks. According to the United States of America’s  International Trade Commission, the current average tariff on imports from China is about 3 percent. Low production costs in Latin America and Asia bring cheap goods in the United States of America, but tariffs would increase the cost of selling Chinese-made goods into the U.S. — which in fact appears to be Trump's goal. Administration officials have expressed concerns about China’s growing ambitions in industries like semiconductors, telecommunications equipment, and other high-tech exports. The tariff rates imposed by China has been measured and it was found out that it has been hit back at exactly the same voters that Trump is eagerly protesting. China has in fact taken a measured response to hurt Trump’s political base rather than swinging an ax over 1300 different products. China's Commerce Ministry on Friday urged the US to avoid placing bilateral trade ties in danger and also said they were not afraid of a trade war. Beijing's measures suspending tariff concessions will target 128 US products including pork, wines and seamless steel tubes and a 25-percent tariff on pork and recycled aluminum products. The Trump administration’s tax proposal, which is said to include cutting the corporate tax rate to 15 percent and also providing a one-time repatriation tax rate for trillions of dollars in the international earnings stashed overseas, is aiming at luring USA’s firms to remit overseas profits home and also to bring such operations back to the United States itself. The tax changes by the United States including the tariffs imposed on imports would tempt the Chinese manufacturers to now invest mostly in the United States of America and to sabotage the competitiveness of Chinese exports. The moto is for China to give up on an old growth model of its relying on exports and to increase its economic transformation. If the initiative of Trump’s maximum 15 percent corporate tax rate is approved by the US Congress, it could flash increased foreign investments into the United States of America. Also, re-shoring of USA’s businesses would be happening to create a shock to the global and Chinese economy as a whole. China might have to cut its own domestic corporate tax in this possible case.The tariffs imposed by the United States on China will not only affect China but it might hurt other countries too as it is true that China exports a lot of steel to the United States but more than that Brazil, Canada, Mexico and other countries do. The metals are used in a huge range of industrial applications that include cars and infrastructures. It is questionable that the imports might pose a threat to the natural security of the country. The United States is the world biggest steel importing country in the world. The top shipment of steel is done by Canada. But the ones affected by this also includes Japan and South Korea. China is not one of the Top 10 countries from which the United States imports steel. In fact, it is not even included in the Top 10 list of steel importers. It is said by trade experts that if Trump goes that route, even U.S. allies like Canada, South Korea, Mexico could be willing to stick tariffs of their own on U.S. exports like agricultural products, or picking non-U.S. goods — like Airbus planes over Boeing models. Beijing is said to take necessary measures to protect its interests if the final decision of the United States affects the country. The unfinished products made from steel are sent to South Korea and Vietnam where the workers put the final touch on the products and ships the finished products to the United States. After that, it is marked as a Vietnamese or Korean import. If that path is closed it indirectly affects China. If Trump invokes Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act, as is recommended, then it is said that he tends to believe that it is hurting the natural security. Trump must respond to the reports by April 11 and 19 for steel and aluminum, respectively to avoid the risk of trade wars and the threat of natural security being imposed on the country.

INDIAN ELECTION
 Suraj Kumar  
 1 April 2018  

Indian ElectionElections is basically a decision which is taken by the public to choose an individual to run a district, state or a country. Elections not only help in forming a government but it also helps in private organizations.The election came in practice from the Vedic period. The king used to elect another king from their sons. At that time there was no role of the public in elections. When the country did not get free and there was British rule in India, elections were held at that time also. But when India got independent, Indian public also got an opportunity to participate in the electoral process and to vote his/her choice of an individual. The process of vote transactions is called the election which is used to maintain the status of democracy.  These political programs began to establish in the year 1950 and were established in the form of the non-lateral program. In 70’s election were held after every 5 years. The election commission is the main functioning body which conducts and regulates the election. The schedule is also prepared by the election commission. This commission is a constitutional body. It prepares the electoral rolls, voter id cards and makes an election booth where the public can come and vote for their individual. This body keeps an eye on everything happening in a booth so that no discrepancy should occur. It also appoints staff for supervising the election. The commission issues some code of conduct and all the party have to strictly follow certain codes. These code of conduct are basically some guidelines which need to be followed by political parties and candidates. On the day of the election, people used to visit the booth and vote for their candidate either through ballot paper method or electronic method. The voting is done area wise and once the process voting is completed the counting of votes are done in the presence of candidates. The one who gets the largest number of votes is declared elected by the district magistrate.The scenario of Indian election- In India, a person above the age of 18 has the right to vote and play a prominent role in forming a government. The preparation of election starts in advance. Every party finds a way to convince people to vote them by making banners, poster or organizing rallies and meeting people and giving a speech to convince them. Some also try to convince people by going door to door for votes. There is a chief officer is assigned to each and every polling booth who supervise all the arrangements and ensures that voting is done fairly and smoothly.  The voting begins in the morning and ends at 5pm. But there are some parties who use unfair means of getting votes. These parties give money to poor people and many more things just for getting votes.  They create a political atmosphere. Just because of these guys India is not able to grow. Today everyone wants to be an engineer or a doctor but no one wants to be a politician. In fact, everyone just ignores the politics happening in front of them just by thinking why to dip our hands in this. In my point of view a sweeper is much better than these politicians, at least he dumps in sewage and cleans the dirt of the city.After 70 years of independence also India is said to be a backward country and the reason is public. We are the one encourages corruption and for some money, we give a vote to the wrong party who does not deserve to be elected. We are the one who thinks of ourselves and not about our country and just say that politics has ruined our country. Its neither politics nor corruption it's we who have destroyed our country.In India, there are many ways through which unfair polling is done. Either the politicians bribe the public or they give them warning to give them vote or else they will hurt them or their respective family members. Even these politicians bribe the officials to change the counting of the vote. No one knows how they did but they did it.    Constitution of India is the supreme law and this law is been copied by other countries law. Our constitution is a compilation of many countries law and this shows why India is still a developing country. India is a democratic country, we are secular and we must have a separate constitution. If this change is done it might change our country.Apart from this India is captured by reservation also. Even in elections reservation quota is there in which some Lok Sabha seats are allocated to reserved category. In India’s Parliament, there are 543 seats and out of which 84 are reserved for another category. This reservation is now misused by the politicians for their vote bank. The politicians have an added advantage over this category for their vote bank. They support a reserved category to get some votes. This nuisance is supported by them just for a vote. Reservation is a painkiller. Instead of killing the problem, nipping it in the bud, they hide the symptom and harm the body in the long run. Reservations by design, cannot help those who are genuinely oppressed, but only those who are incompetent.Importance of voting-Voting is important because it gives the right to a common person to choose his or her ruler. The public gets an indirect control over the functioning of government and they also have the power to raise a voice against unfair meansVoting is our right and we all should actively participate in the election and only then we’ll have good governance.Today India is also on his knees and it needs someone to who can run this country properly.If we all can come together and fight for GST then we all can also fight for corruption. First, we need to change ourselves then only we can change the world. Instead of promoting Swachh Bharat Abhiyan first we should look inside ourselves and become a Swachh person then only India can become Swachh.