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The biochemistry of love
 Rajabala Tripathy  
 1 April 2019  

❤️The biochemistry of love❤️Falling in love is undeniably one of the best feelings in the world. The majority of people who seek psychotherapy are either looking for love, too afraid of it or recovering from its loss. Psychologist Cher Laurenti Engerer explains what happens in our brains through this fundamental human experience. Romantic love – the kind that makes our heart skip a beat and puts a bounce in our step – may well be one of the most studied but least understood human behaviours. ❤️Psychological studies about love over the last decade have taken on a new dimension. Through the technologies of MRI imaging of the brain of individuals in the depths of romantic love, we have discovered that the very sight of our loved one is enough to send our brain into a biochemical overload. It was discovered that seeing photos of people we are in love with causes our brains to become active in regions associated with pleasure and rich in so-called feel-good neurotransmitters (happy hormones), such as dopamine.We also now know that primitive areas of the brain are primarily involved in romantic love – which means that love is not something we are consciously in control of but rather a process that happens with little involvement of the central brain. Falling in love happens without us thinking about it. This phenomenon is something of great frustration for most people. In fact, clients often come for psychotherapy hoping to be hypnotised or to be taught ways of forgetting or to stop loving, which of course is not something within our human capacity.❤️People also often seek to take a rational approach to love but, based on these findings, we can see that it is scientifically impossible to be rational and in love at the same time since two very independent mechanisms of the brain are responsible for love and reason; biochemicals are the fundamental influencing factor in the process of falling for our person.❤️So what happens when we fall in love? Chemicals associated with pleasure circuits flood our brain, producing a variety of physical and emotional responses – increased heart rate, dilated pupils, flutters in the stomach, loss of appetite, sweaty palms, flushed cheeks, feelings of passion and anxiety. Levels of stress hormones also increase during the initial phase of love, something most people find difficult to understand.❤️ Romantic love is experienced as a crisis in the brain, causing an avalanche of chemical reactions which shake the pediments of our life. With the increase of certain chemicals comes the depletion of others, causing strange and irrational behaviours. Sometimes, people can even become ecstatic, obsessive, irrational and terrified.❤️We are also prone to making rash decisions in these flights of passion. When in love, the neural processes responsible for making critical assessments of other people, including those we are in love with, shut down – which in essence is the basis for the old adage ‘love is blind’.❤️ The love hormone Oxytocin deepens feelings of attachment and makes couples feel closer to one another after having sex. It elicits feelings of joy, passion, safety and serenity. The lustful part of love is caused by testosterone and estrogens; other chemicals known as monoamines are responsible for attraction.❤️Heartbreak is a strong feeling of grief or despair. It can be experienced as a physical pain in the chest and at times can also be chronically debilitating to our lives, sending us into emotional turmoil and distress. This experience is also fundamentally biochemically based. In essence, it can feel like a ‘withdrawal’ from an addiction, during which ‘happy hormones’ leave our body or try to equilibrate and regulate themselves.❤️Heartbreak causes a volcano of chemical reactions which bring strong feelings of sadness and stress. Our brain triggers that we are in trauma, sending us into an autonomic loop of survival instinct. Life suddenly becomes about coping and our brain floods us with alert signals of danger and copious amounts of stress hormones in our blood. When we fall in love, chemicals give the body a goal and when heartbroken, the very same chemicals in the brain go out of whack, causing a chronic chemical imbalance. Heartbreak takes time to heal and has to run its course.❤️If love lasts, the rollercoaster of biochemical reactions and emotions tends to calm within one or two years, a term people commonly refer to as the end of the ‘honeymoon period’. Brain areas associated with pleasure are still activated as loving relationships proceed, but with the decrease of oxytocin, we also experience a decline in passion and craving.❤️Some propose that over time most couples see a change from passionate love to what is typically called compassionate love – a love that is deep but not as euphoric as in the early stages of romance. This is often a critical period for couples. Some assume they are no longer in love, some seek the passion elsewhere and others experience silent disappointment.❤️The good news is that it is actually possible to stay madly in love with someone after decades together. Research using MRI scans has shown that the same intensity of chemical reactions was observed in couples who had been together for over 20 years, as in those in the early stages of love. So, why do some couples have this and others not? Is it possible to rekindle the flame we experienced in the early days of our relationship after being bogged down by life, children, sickness and work pressures? The study suggested that the excitement of romance can remain while the apprehension is lost.❤️By Rajabala Tripathy

Ways to Treat post Heart Attack Complications
 Galagali Multimedia  
 23 April 2019  

Every year more than 700,000 people get heart attack. In which, for more than 200,000 of them has their second heart attack. Following the proper recovery methods and understanding the complications that can occur after a heart attack is necessary to help prevent repeated heart attacks. Know about the post heart attack complications as well as recovery process to stay secure and healthy.Time a patient takes to recover from a heart attackAfter heart attack, recovery time is completely dependent on the level of sternness. Generally, people prefer to stay up to a week at the hospital, but then if there are any complications, Heart specialist extend the patient’s stay from two weeks to three months on average. There is no specific recovery time for hospitalization or at home recovery, it is reliant on a doctor’s opinion as well as the seriousness of the heart attack in every situation.The recovery process of post heart attackRecovery commences in the hospital and continues at home once the patient is discharged. The motive of the recovery process is to restore physical activity in the course of exercise and lessen the risk of another heart attack by making lifestyle changes, while monitoring mental health to assist in avoiding anxiety and depression.Cardiac rehabilitation is a renowned form of recovery that usually begins during hospitalization and continues at home. Cardiac rehabilitation aims on living a heart healthy life and assists patient’s make the needed lifestyle changes. This might include a change in diet to focus on heart healthy food stuffs, exercising, and helping people to deal with the emotional stress that can cause heart attack.Time taken to recommence normal activitiesBeing coming back to usual activities is dependent on the severity of the heart attack as well as the doctor’s opinion. Many people are able to return to work in around two weeks, apart from those who do heavy manual work, who typically require more time to make they are recovered enough to resume work as before. When it comes to resuming intimacy in your relationship, doctors mostly direct to wait four to six weeks after heart attack. If you are driving a vehicle, usually, you will be able to resume driving one week post a heart attack, only if your heart attack was a mild one.The complications faced during a heart attackComplications are mostly related to injury done to the heart at the time of heart attack that leads to further problems. The mainly common complications are arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms), heart rupture, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and valve problems.Post heart attack complications are very risky if not treated, so it is necessary to have a complete knowledge of the most common heart attack complications. The consequences to the growth of arrhythmia are abnormal heart rhythms, or electrical “short circuits,” that leads in abnormal heartbeats like tachycardia (beating too fast), bradycardia (beating very slowly), and atrial fibrillation (beating irregularly). Arrhythmias develop because of the damaged heart muscle disrupting the electrical signals sent by the body to control the heart. Whereas severe arrhythmias are a serious life-threatening situation, survival rates have increased because of the invention of the portable defibrillator. Mild arrhythmias are mostly taken under control with medications.This kind of heart problems happen when the remaining heart muscle cannot properly pump blood from the heart to your body. This usually happens on the left side of the heart and can be cured with medication and possibly surgery.

Can we convert the exhaust gas usefully ?
 Venkatesh R  
 9 May 2019  

How does the environment behave with exhaust gas in vehicles, if their temp is being reduced before exhaust?If the exhaust gas passes through a similar setup to that of the radiator, and then if it gets exhausted, with a lower temperature, the heat will be less and exhaust gas temp should be less and the water vapor effect may differ.probably with some design change, this can be achieved, this link the windmill one somewhat relates to what I am saying https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/manufacture-water1.htmThis is more of a subject that is related to evaporation and fractional distillation. Where the liquids of different temperature, losses heat or based on the temperature they get settled in the columns. Given that, apart from sea, rivers, the major presence of water is combustion, where it is present as water vapor in the exhaust gas. Unlike the other experiments, where raw materials like hydrogen, oxygen will be used to form the cloud, so the water vapor which is one of the key factors for global warming can be put back into the water cycle. Hence the focus is to capture the water vapor from the readily available exhaust gas. We can imagine the earth as a huge fractional distillation column with varying temperature w.r.t. altitude, so the gases get settled at a different level. If the gases are cooled, their rise in the column gets affected there a good probability that clouds get formed at a lower altitude where absorption of sunlight and greenhouse effect gets reduced, because of both carbon and VPThe idea of separating the carbon and hydrogen can be done with a difference in temperature, given that carbon and water vapor has a difference in temperature. The idea of reducing the temperature of the exhaust gas can provide a probability of condensing or forming clouds at a lower altitude. The need is a better cooling system, with a coolant and air blast before the gas gets exhausted. The air captured can help in cooling the exhaust gas, though the fractional distillation of air is used to produce the industrial nitrogen and oxygen, still Water vapor and carbon dioxide are removed because they solidify at low temperatures, within the mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor still there is a difference in temperature, that can serve to get separated at different level.Just an experiment, with the usage of coolant in thermodynamics lab, could help to study the behavior of these gases on the environment. Probable exhaust system, modified:Usage of diluted isopropyl alcohol before the gas being let offhttps://blog.gotopac.com/2017/05/15/why-is-70-isopropyl-alcohol-ipa-a-better-disinfectant-than-99-isopropanol-and-what-is-ipa-used-for/Most of the air-conditioning topics need to be used for this setup,ref: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=onvokzYlRR0&ab_channel=LinwoodStarlinghttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2265UNflXT4&ab_channel=grayfurnacemanPsychrometry analysis needs to be done, the temperature from the normal exhaust gas and with modified air-cooled exhaust gas/coolant exhaust gas needs to be calculated. Some assumptions need to be considered as in Air-conditioning and refrigerators as well.Few questions to people who are researching :few clarifications, how far https://www.quora.com/How-much-water-is-formed-by-the-combustion-of-1-litre-of-petrol is correct, at least in theory this looks to be correct, and even if we consider the efficiency of the engine, if we assume if 20 or 10 % is what Vapor gets released, still it is an good amount of water given that so many vehicles are running around the city, and consuming a lot of gasoline.As per assumption, Open system is assumed to be a heat sink, which may not be true given that at one point heat can't be dissipated due to the greenhouse gases. Have you come across any paper on the effect of greenhouse gases w.r.t altitude? I mean how these gases react when the altitude is less. Air at higher altitude is dry, less of water vapor, but VP content would have raised because of global warming even in higher altitude, so if the temperature of this VP in the exhaust is reduced, there may be a possibility of reducing global warming effect and probability of changing them to cloud.In the video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MtMmgcZoTSA, what is the role of alcohol? Is there any other substitute for this especially for a hot exhaust gas? as it is flammable and if we use a diluted solution 70% rubbing alcohol will it help in some way?PV=nRTIf the pressure is reduced after opening the cap of the bottle, volume inc and water vapor changed to the cloud, ideally the same can be achieved as per my assumption by reducing temperature, do you think this is correct?Importance of radiator study in cooling:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256718727_A_review_on_air_flow_and_coolant_flow_circuit_in_vehicles'_cooling_systemWith a high speed, the motion we need to see how the air flows in the pipes, without creating the coolant pipes. Probably aerodynamics needs to be applied, more related to F1 cars.ref:Cloud formation in a bottle:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cXpuo3YHOn0how many liters of water can be produced from petrol:https://www.quora.com/How-much-water-is-formed-by-the-combustion-of-1-litre-of-petrolCan water be produced by combustion, pros, and cons:https://chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/55664/why-dont-we-produce-water-from-combustionFractional distillation of air:http://www.dynamicscience.com.au/tester/solutions1/chemistry/gas/fractionaldistilationofair.htmhttp://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM69/AM69_319.pdf

Comparison Between Different Places of Trekking in Nepal
 Manmohan Singh  
 17 May 2019  

The Himalayas, which are a favourite muse for anyone in the world who seek wisdom and peace, hides some of the most fascinating tracks for trekking and hiking. Trekking enthusiasts, flock in large numbers to experience this alpine wilderness and picturesque landscapes. The variety and diversity of terrains, takes Nepal a notch higher than other such adventurous destinations. It is undermining to say that Nepal has areas that provide a once in a lifetime experience, unless you have experienced Nepal for your own self.Nepal is a country that hosts 70% of the entire Himalayan range. It also hosts Mount Everest, (the highest mountain in the world) which maybe but a fraction of what is there to discover in Nepal.There is a little bit of a trekking heaven for everyone. It offers short hiking trips that last for about 5 days, medium treks for about 12 days long and long treks for up to 20 days in the wilderness.Here is a list and statistics for scaling some of the most famous trekking in Nepal:1. Northern Kanchenjunga trek (eastern Nepal):The difficulty level of the Northern Kanchenjunga trek is hard. It is an estimated 18-20 days trek and you reach an elevation of around 5,140 metres. For this trek your starting and finishing points will be from Basantpur to Suketar. You will find warm accommodation in teahouses. There are no permits required to do this trek, instead you have to pay 10 US dollars per week.2. Phoksumdo Lake to Shey Gumba trek (western Nepal):The difficulty level of the trek is medium to Hard. It is an estimated 8-10 days trek and you reach an elevation of around 5,160 metres. For this trek your starting and finishing points will be from Jomsom,Dunai to Tarap. You will find warm accommodation in teahouses. The permits required to do this trek are: Shey Phoksumdo National Park Permit, TIMS card and Restricted Area Permit.3. Kagmara trek (western Nepal):The difficulty level of the Kagmara la trek is medium to Hard. It is an estimated 4 days trek and you reach an elevation of around 5,115 metres. For this trek your starting and finishing points will be from Kaigaon to Sumduwa. You will find warm accommodation in teahouses. The permits required to do this trek are: Shey Phoksumdo National Park Permit and TIMS card.4. Annapurna panorama Poonhill trek (Annapurna region):The difficulty level of the Annapurna Poonhill trek is medium. It is an estimated 06 days trek and you reach an elevation of around 3,210 metres. For this trek your starting and finishing points will be from Birenthanti to Phedi via Poonhill. You will find warm accommodation in teahouses. The permits required to do this trek are: ACAP permit and TIMS card.5. Annapurna circuit (Annapurna region):One of the most enquired routes is the Annapurna circuit trekking in Nepal, which is a little tougher than any other trekking routes.The difficulty level of the Annapurna circuit trek is medium to hard. It is an estimated 12-18 days trek and you reach an elevation of around 5,416 metres. For this trek your starting and finishing points will be from Besi Sahar to Jomsom. You will find warm accommodation in teahouses. The permits required to do this trek are:  ACAP permit and TIMS card.6. Mardi Himal (Annapurna region):The difficulty level of the Madri Himal trek is Hard. It is an estimated 5 days trek and you reach an elevation of around 5,587 metres. For this trek your starting and finishing points will be from Mardi Pul to Mardi Himal to Mardi Pul. You will find warm accommodation in teahouses. The permits required to do this trek are: ACAP permit and TIMS card.7. The mustang trek (mustang region):The difficulty level of the upper Mustang trek is medium. It is an estimated 10 days trek and you reach an elevation of around 4,352 metres. For this trek your starting and finishing point will be from Jomsom to Manthang lo to Jomsom. You will find warm accommodation in teahouses. The permits required to do this trek are: ACAP Permit and TIMS card.8. Everest base camp trek (Everest region):The difficulty level of the Everest base camp trek is medium to hard. It is an estimated 16 days trek and you reach an elevation of around 5,545 metres. For this trek your starting and finishing points will be from Lukla to Lukla. You will find warm accommodation in teahouses. The permits required to do this trek are: Sagarmatha National Park Permit and TIMS card.9. Manaslu trek (Manaslu region):The difficulty level of the Manaslu trek is medium. It is an estimated 16-18 days trek and you reach an elevation of around 5,100 metres. For this trek your starting and finishing point will be Besi Sahar. You will find warm accommodation in teahouses. The permits required to do this trek are:  a restricted area permit, ACAP and MCAP permit and TIMS card.10. Helambu circuit trek (Helambu region):The difficulty level of the Helambu circuit trek is easy to medium. It is an estimated 06 days trek and you reach an elevation of around 3,640 metres. For this trek your starting and finishing point will be Sundarijal. You will find warm accommodation in teahouses. The permits required to do this trek are: Shivapuri National Park Pass and TIMS card.There are so many more treks in Nepal. So whether you’ve come around looking for something easy yet adventurous or you’ve come looking for something hard to challenge your limits, Nepal is the best place to find all these options all under the same roof. Next time you want to visit a place that offers most beautiful spaces to trot on; without burning a large hole in your pockets, you already know where to find all of these....

All you need to know about Electrical Control Panel
 Galagali Multimedia  
 6 June 2019  

Ever thought about the way an automobile assembly line is controlled?Let’s talk regarding the thing that controls large as well as small mechanical processes like an assembly line. Such device is known as an electrical control panel.Assume of an electrical control panel similar to the human body. Human being’s have vital organs inside the body that controls as well as monitors the atmosphere. Just like that, there is an electrical control panel that is a metal box which comprises of vital electrical devices that controls as well as monitors the mechanical process electrically.1. Meaning of EnclosureInitially let’s know about the enclosure, the metal box which comprises of all the electrical devices of the control panel. These enclosures are made of aluminum or stainless steel and the size might differ depending on the size of the process.The area where the electrical control panel is placed comprises of multiple sessions. Every particular section has a door to access.The dimension of the enclosure is usually referred to by the number of doors the enclosure comprises.Every enclosure comprises of an electrical safety rating given by UL, the “Underwriters Laboratories” that supervises electrical safety.Electrical control panel has an IP rating or NEMA classification that selects the enclosure to be indoor or outdoor, water-resistant or waterproof, appropriate for dangerous situations, dustproof or explosion proof.2. Back Panel, DIN Rails, Wiring DuctsFurther let’s discuss about the back panel of the enclosure. The back panel is made up of a sheet of metal which is placed on the inner side of the enclosure that allows drilling mounting holes for several devices that results to the next component, DIN rails.The metal rail of a standard width used for mounting electrical devices is known as a DIN rail.The wiring duct is the other part inside the electrical control panel.Ducts permits to route the wires in a proper as well as effective manner and also by reducing the electrical noise between the devices.Now, let’s discuss about the components of the electrical control panel.3. Electrical Components of a Control Panel3.1. Main Circuit BreakerThe main circuit breaker is the place where the power comes into the control panel for each and every device. This circuit breaker usually disconnects on the outside of the panel that permits to switch off the power.Keep in mind that the topside of the circuit breaker will always have power. The power that gets into the panel, might be around from 480 volts to as low as 120 volts.  3.2. Surge ArresterThe moment the power comes inside the panel from the main circuit breaker the power will be run into a surge arrester.A surge arrester is a piece of equipment that guards all of the electrical equipment inside the control panel from electrical surges or overvoltage. An electrical surge can appear from a lightning strike or utility power surge.3.3. Transformer and 24-Volt Power SupplyThe power can be joined to a transformer that switches the power down so that they can power smaller devices. If the incoming power is more than 120 volts, a transformer is usually used.A power supply may be utilized to step the power down to 24 volts, if the power is 120 volts.Presently, the electrical control panel has incoming power from the main circuit breaker and power distributed by a transformer or power supply the several voltages can be wired into terminal blocks for even further routing of power throughout the electrical control panel. 3.4. Terminal BlockA terminal block comprises of two terminals that can connect two or more wires with one another.Terminal blocks can be set with different other blocks in a strip mounted on a DIN rail to run power from one source to various other devices all over the panel.3.5. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)The other part of the control panel is a device that controls as well as monitors the mechanical process. Now, let’s discuss about the PLC or Programmable Logic Controller.The PLC is kind of brain of the whole process.The PLC will have a CPU, the place where the logic program is kept.It will comprise of associated inputs as well as outputs that will assist to control and monitor the Assembly line.If discussed about the terminal blocks, they have wires connected from them to the inputs and outputs. This permits for the actual control of the assembly line.Field devices like proximity switches, photo eyes, and other sensors are placed up on the assembly line to give the feedback required for the PLC to handle the operation of the line.3.6. Relays and ContactorsThe PLC outputs are connected to a bank of relays that will close an internal contact which can send power out to turn ON or OFF a device that is placed on the assembly line.Smaller relays will handle devices like the lights or fans whereas a bigger relay, named as a “contactor”, is used to control motors.3.7. Network SwitchYou can also have a network switch situated somewhere around the PLC.This will be powered with 24 volts as well as it will be the HUB for the communication to and from the PLC to network compatible devices on the assembly line.3.8. Human Machine Interface (HMI)Among the entire devices one is the “Human Machine Interface” or HMI. An HMI can be fixed locally onto a panel door or in a remote panel situated near to the machinery.The HMI can be a too dynamic tool in helping the operator in handling as well as monitoring the machinery.The PLC will convey signals over the network to the HMI for monitoring as well as the HMI can fling signals to the PLC for controlling the machinery.Lately, we discussed about the components of a control panel. Each control panel will have the initial power source coming in that is distributed all over the panel to different devices for control as well as monitoring.Control panels do come in various sizes but they all have similar devices.

Tips & techniques for UPS-Batteries
 Galagali Multimedia  
 8 June 2019  

Luminous is entirely about adapting to aptness as well as making sure to offer benefit to consumers all over the world. The UPS is a kind of product that has been vigilantly crafted by paying attention to all the safety norms, aesthetic appeal, durability and efficiency. Below are noted down some additional components, technical specifications with calculations that are evenly necessary and play a big role in making the product one of a kind.Know your UPSA power UPS or UPS is a type of an electronic device or circuitry which changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC).The input voltage, output voltage and frequency and overall power handling hinge on the design of the particular device or circuitry. The UPS does not generate any power; the power is given by the DC source. A power UPS can be fully electronic or can be a mixture of mechanical effects (such as a rotary apparatus) and electronic circuitry.Selecting the right UPS and battery for the houses completely depends on the power needed, the VA rating that is required based on the power requirement as well as a battery that is appropriate for the UPS. Once the person knows the whole requirement, choosing the right product just becomes simple.Battery: The backbone of the UPSThe battery is the main component of the UPS. It is accountable for the excellent performance as well as long life of the UPS. Thus daily maintenance as well as care of the battery is very important. Similar to the other home appliance, the UPS and its battery need regular maintenance for effectual operation as well as longer life. Even though they do not beautify the house like the steel coating double door refrigerator or the black glittery microwave, they do help in living comfortably in the hard time during power cuts.Some maintenance tips to ensure proper efficiency of the UPS:·Battery placement: Make sure to use a properly ventilated area for UPS installation. The UPS battery gets heated up at the time of charging as well as operation. An airy place lessens the heating up of the battery. It also decreases the recurrent water topping requirement.·Battery usage: After installation make use of battery on a daily basis. If the power cut does not happen, discharge the battery fully once every month and then again charge it.·Water level check: See the water level of battery every 60 days. Make sure that the water level is there between the maximum and minimum water limit. Every time top up the battery with distilled water. Avoid using tap water or rainwater as it consist too much minerals and impurities that affect the life as well as performance of the battery.·Cleanliness: make sure that the surface and sides of battery is clean as well as dust free. Clean the surface with a cotton cloth.·Protection from rusting: Ensure that the battery terminals are corrosion free and rust free. By chance the terminals get corroded, pour hot water and baking soda solution on the corrosive part and use a toothbrush to clean it. This will remove the corrosion. When the terminals turn out to be corrosion free, put petroleum jelly or Vaseline on to the terminals, nuts and bolts to avoid corrosion in future. Rusting and corrosion is not at all good for battery performance. Rusting in terminals lessens the current flow to and from the battery. This restricted flow of current leads to slow battery charging that ultimately decreases battery life.·Open vents: Make sure that the vents near to the battery are dust free and open. Blocked vents result in hydrogen gas accumulation that may lead to bursting of battery.·Safe installation: on the safer side, install the UPS at those places in the home which is out of the reach of children or a less used place. But also make sure that the area is airy as well as appropriately ventilated.·Battery replacement: Change the battery if it is dead or damaged. Inspection after proper intervals, will keep the person updated on the UPS and its battery conditions.