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Finance for kids : Why is US dollar more powerful than Indian Rupees
 Bibhu datta Rout  
 2 March 2018  

Adult (A) : Say there are two kids in the world. You and your friend. Noone else exists.Kid (K): Ok.A: You produce apples and your friend produces oranges. Since you love oranges and your friend love apples, you make a deal that every month your friend will give you 100 oranges in return for 100 apples. This is called barter system - you give me some goods or services and your friend pays you back in terms of goods and services. This practices remained for some time until there was some natural calamity in your area and you failed to produce sufficient apples for a month. But you wanted oranges. You went to your friend's place and asked for oranges.K: But why would he give me anything, when he knew that I couldn't keep my promises.A: Correct. So he made a deal. He gave you some paper, which had some agreement that you would pay him back oranges that he was lending to you. The agreement was made with the assumption that, you were an honest guy and you would keep your promises and when you had apples, you would return him back. Exchange of goods in this format gave birth to a new concept called "Money". In economic terms, it is called 'Fiat economy'- where goods are exchanged for something which cannot have a direct utility. Money has utility only when it is exchanged. Until now you had the need for oranges only. But say, you desired for pineapple, strawberries etc. and there are few more players in the market who are exchanging those fruits by issuing different paper notes. This kind of practice gives rise to the 'global currencies' where the value of each currency is different from rest of the world.C: But won't the value of each currency be same in a fair world?A: Yes, in an ideal world, the value of each currency or fiat money should be same. But here comes the complex scenario which is driven by power and greed. Every player in the market wants to get more by paying less. So your apple might not be as appealing to someone as it appeals to other and you end up paying more apples for same goods and services you get from others. C: Why would I pay more when I can get it at a fair price from someone else?A: The fair price is driven by market perception about certain goods and services. Since more players are in the market, more perception prevails. Good, bad and ugly are differentiated by perceptions only.C: Who controls perceptions?A: Good question. The dominant and powerful player in the market controls the perception. By influencing others he will make others realize that his goods or services are better than others and hence demand more value in return.C: But tell me how USD influenced the market to be the dominant player and hence more powerful in the currency market.A: Before world war I, every country was trying to influence other countries to become the dominant player in the market. During that time, Theodore Roosevelt influenced the neighboring countries to follow USD as foreign exchange currency rather than gold, which was used until that period of time. Some notable examples can be read in the history of  Cuba, Venezuela, Santo Domingo and panama. America had been engaged in producing arms by that time and was supplying to foreign countries including united kingdom.During world war 1, America gave some good number of arms to United Kingdom, who was under financial crisis and was dependent upon its' ruling countries like India and some south-east Asian countries to generate sufficient money to afford luxury the Britishers were accustomed to. During the financial crisis of world war I, United Kingdom took arms from US trough a negotiation or deal known as Liberty Bond, which amounted to over $20 billon, which would be much more than what is America's current national economy at the moment.C: You mean UK was knowing they cannot pay back the loan, but they were still keen on taking the arms from US to fight against other countries and in that case Americans were keen on giving some loans which they were confident that it could not be repaid.A: Power to control others and the greed to have more are biggest vices of the human being. The then political strategists of America were thinking much beyond their time - at least 50 years ahead of time. UK sooner became an ally in America's endeavor to have USD as global currency post world war II. But acceptance by few countries does not make a currency truly global.C: What happened next?A: After world war II, America was perceived as the super power of the world. Thanks to some scientist who could not visualize the impact of atom bomb before inventing them. Every country was agreeing to a global bank known as World Bank and fund of funds known as International monetary fund. The duty of both entities were to ensure fair market practices in the globe. However influence of US continued and they changed the exchange methods from gold transactions to US dollar. There were a lot of factors which were either manipulated or done strategically to get it done.C: I understand dollar became global currency, but why it became more powerful than Indian rupees.A: Once you have the control of global currency, you can manipulate that in your favor. I will go back to that apple and orange examples. Now that your apple is purchased by US, who has certain criteria of selection of apples to know the fair price of apples. After careful observations, it is declared that your 100 apples are actually 50 apples worth as per US standard. You have two choices - either you don't sell apple or sell in the different market. Say in such scenarios, you don't have the sufficiently big market to sell your apples and you know that if you fail to sell in US, you might lose more money. You don't bargain much and accept the negotiations done by them. When everyone started accepting the terms defined by them, the power of dollar became more. I hope that answers your question.C: Can it never be reversed. I mean INR becomes more powerful than USD?A: Yes, logically possible, for that India as a country has to think ahead of time and the strategist and policymaker make the country self-dependent and more job opportunity is created internally rather than dependent upon foreign resources. Many of the natural resources are under-utilized in India so as the human capital. If that is oriented in right manner, then time is not far we see the reverse action. India needs to be technologically sound and the education system should teach how to be innovative and creative rather than just compete to score marks. I strongly believe, your generations can do.C: Yes, we will. Thank you for the answer.

The Jobholics
 Trupti Paikaray  
 15 March 2018  

The only obsession to be in a good job, doing jobs and only jobs, getting better jobs in the good companies, the expectation to work in multi-national companies, dream to be in government jobs, to born, brought up and die with jobs are the acts of the jobholics. They can only see, think, imagine of doing jobs only, to work as paid employees only. I don’t have any problem with the jobs; after all, it gives me and us bread and butter. But, sometimes it hurts me when we are so highly obsessed with jobs that if we don’t get jobs we think it better to sit at home and eat away our parent’s money without thinking of alternatives. The parents are also equally responsible for making their children jobholics. So, the young generation can’t think or imagine a world without or beyond jobs. In absence of a job or with no-jobs they prefer to remain jobless and unemployed, but can’t go for alternative career options. We are born and brought up with such ideas, persuasions and when a child is born the parents start planning, “my son is going to be an engineer only, my daughter is going to be a doctor” and they spoon-feed their children to be doctors and Engineers only when there are a lot of options available, and what about their passions, their interests. I have seen many teenagers suffering from such problems. Some of my juniors have shared their unhappiness with me saying that “I wanted to be a banker, a singer, a painter, but our parents forced us to study Engineering which I don’t like at all”. In the later stage, they have left that Engineering jobs to start banking careers or they have joined the careers of their choices. I feel that parents should guide their children, encourage them to study hard, but they shouldn't impose on them what they supposed to be, it’s purely a personal decision. And the children should enjoy full freedom choosing the career of their preferences; allow them to grow with their dreams, passions, allow them to be a singer, a dancer, a painter, an actor, a teacher, an agropreneur and a journalist. If the children follow their passions and nurtured with their talents, skills, and passions they will grow and fly high and would be successful in life. It will make them happy from within and that is the true meaning of life. Then they will be able to contribute their best to the societySimilarly, job should not be the only option left to the children, the parents should encourage their children to be business tycoons, entrepreneurs, industrialists, not only to be the jobholders but also be the job creators and why 10am to 6 pm job only where no holidays, extra hours of work, non-cooperative colleagues, foul play by co-workers, diplomatic boss and handling all these we develop anxiety and stress which leads to fatal diseases among the youths these days. Long hours of sitting in front of the computers and working like machines make them diseased & unhealthy. Can’t we think of job creations, giving jobs to others? After all, we find that most of the successful people are among the top business tycoons like Tata, Birla, Ambani, and Adani who are big entrepreneurs. If they were thinking of doing jobs only they would not have created the most demanding huge jobs markets for the youths in India and abroad. We should come out of that stereotypes and not only to get jobs but also creating jobs for others should be our motto. In our country people have a typical mindset pertaining to jobs, they only know to give respect to people with high-level jobs and even if a businessman is earning much more than that person he doesn’t get the same respect from the people. Similarly, people with highly established jobs want their children to follow the same pattern even if their wards are not good at studies, if their children don’t get expected jobs and decide to start business careers they are mocked by their friends and relatives, i.e. “what? Son of Mr.X, going to sell clothes and I have seen this happening in my family also. We never appreciate the business, entrepreneurial activities, and the youths without getting any support from their parents and family members being frustrated, being stressed start doing all the wrong things. It not only leads to unemployment but also poverty. Entrepreneurship must be promoted, the parents must understand its significance, and youths must be oriented to follow it as alternative career options. One entrepreneur can give jobs to many unemployed youths. Like American teens don't get pressurized to follow a trend or a career path, our Indian teens should not be pressurized in any case. In America, they know each one of them is different from each other and they designed to do things differently. So they are free to choose their career paths. They do part-time jobs for running their expenditures and they don’t judge the work you do. But here parents will decide whether their children should go for Medical or Engineering. That is the reason they are called developed countries. Hence, in our country the youths should be encouraged to follow the careers of their choices, there should be no compulsions. Similarly, entrepreneurship must be promoted among the youths to make our country developed, rich, and to ensure adequate employment opportunities are available for the unemployed mass.

Mashmellos, ‘Lazer’, and high ‘Temperature’ at Vh1 Supersonic
 Verus Ferreira  
 16 March 2018  

When you have headliners such as Marshmallow, Major Lazer, and Sean Paul coming together, you know you are at one of the best festivals in the world.Kicking off the fifth edition from last year’s three stages, the fest brought in six stages this year, with the main stage Sonic Realm taking you into fairytale land with an Alice in Wonderland setup, complete with a clock, the hands that actually move, but anti-clockwise. You also had the wings of the ladybug open and close at intervals. And to top it all, you had the commanding deer right in the center. Laboratory Supersonic was the first stage as you entered the venue, and comparatively small compared to the others, but sporting a very industrial feel, complete with shipping port containers stacked in the backdrop. Live Arena was the huge main stage and a well thought of Changeover stage for much smaller acts. Between the Live Arena and the Spectrum stage that had more of the EDM acts, was the Reggae Stage close to the Beer Garden spinning out some classic reggae tunes on CD and vinyl. The first day of the three-day festival held from 9th, 10th and 11th February, saw Indie acts like Komorebi, Parekh & Singh, Clayton Hogermeer, Kohra, and Midival Punditz to the Live Arena stage offering the topper for the night Nucleya, Dillion Francis and Major Lazer on the Sonic Realm stage. Anyone who was at the festival will tell you how packed the venue was, and going by statistics from last year, this season saw the highest number of footfalls, with a total attendance of around 12,000 people on all three days. Major Lazer, who has played in the country before, began his set with one of Bollywood’s iconic track Choli Ke Peeche moving over to Kendrick Lamar’s Humble and Ed Sheeran’s Shape of You, besides of course his own songs. Lazer showed his love for Bollywood with more unexpected tracks like Ladki Kar Gayi Chul and a few others. If Daft Punk had their helmets, Deadmau5 his mouse head, Christopher Comstock, known professionally as Marshmello, an American electronic dance music producer and DJ had the mask head. Day 2 saw a few die-hard Mashmellow fans walk in with the face mask and dancing just like he does.Though the day started with some great acts like Madboy Mink and the Stage Collective at Live Arena, followed by the Shillong based Soulmate who gave a rousing performance, this was followed by the Ska Vengers ending with Bombay Bassment and the Fanculos. The Spectrum stage witnessed some big bang performances like Ash Roy and Tuhin Mehta to Joseph Capriati, while The Laboratoire stage witnessed some galactic performances from Raja Kumari bringing tracks like Meera, Believe in You, City Slums. DJ Uri played the turntables with Ryan Sadri on Sax, but the night eventually belonged to Mashmello. Once again like the previous night opening act was almost similar to that of Major Lazer as both of them had Choli Ke Peeche Kya Hai as the opening song, but from there Mashmello went on to his blockbusters we love so much. The last day at Laxmi Lawns saw indie acts like Aswekeepsearching, Pentagram, The F 16s and American rock band Incubus to the Spectrum stage offering a fantastic set by Arjun Vagale. The main act for the night was taken by Sean Paul, with audiences expecting a night to remember. Sadly the Jamaican rapper who sported an orange jacket, was not in his element but managed to raise the bar a bit with songs like Temperature, She Doesn’t Mind and a few others. The venue had lots to offer, if you ever got tired of the music. At a sprawling 35,000 sq ft moving around from each stage would give you enough exercise to lose a few calories. Like last year, there were several installations to keep you busy. This year had a giant slide, swings, cute de-stress tents, a see saw, and a mechanical bull, besides of course a fabulous food court with a mini flea market. Sadly if you wanted to have your poison while you enjoyed your favourite act, you would have to down the glass of beer or Jim Bean at the bar itself, as no alcohol was permitted outside the bar area or allowed to be carried from one stage bar to the other. Something that the organisers should seriously consider doing away with. One may try to adhere to the Legal Drinking Age (LDA) of 25, but chances are you might just get away with it at the Beer Garden that had practically no security to oversee who was drinking what. Despite the hits and the misses, Vh1 Supersonic gave us memories we will always cherish. Can’t wait for next year.Text and Photos by Verus Ferreira 

Music Story
 Verus Ferreira  
 16 March 2018  

Harvey Leigh Cantwel aka HRVY  is the guy of every teenage girl’s dream. With sky blue eyes and a ruffled blonde hairdo, the 19 year old lad is a fountain of talent. Seated at the Bottomline Media office, in a pair of torn jeans and a dark blue kurta, with his management team all around, when we meet HRVY, he’s like your boy next door, casual and down to earth. His first ever live performance at Hard Rock Cafe in Mumbai was sold out with many claiming his performance was truly astounding. He had the girls literally falling for him. His alluring face, million dollar smile and attractive looks, all go to make him a real charmer. HRVY is today one of the most searched singers with his video Personal clocking about 50 million views to date. His songs Phobia, Holiday and the latest single Personal are hot favourites with teens, with their lyrics, most stemming from HRVY’s personal life experiences. HRVY is a social media sensation on platforms such as Instagram and Twitter Before his fame on social media, HRVY was a presenter on BBC’s Friday Download. After that he took to social media and released his first EP, Holiday on 25th July, 2017. While his name is on every teens lips, we can’t but wonder, why the Londoner from Kent, chose HRVY and not his real name. We choose to find out this and lot more when The Teenager Today’s music columnist Verus Ferreira got exclusive access to the dashing youngster. Here are excerpts from that conversation:So everyone wants to know the reason for the change in name. Can you tell us where the ‘a’ and ‘e’ disappeared?My team thought we might take out the vowels ‘a’ and ‘e’, and see how it sounds and make my name sound a bit different. It just stuck What music did you listen to while you were growing up?I listened to U2, songs that my dad used to play in the car. I also like Justin Timberlake, he’s great, then there’s a singer Craig David from the UK and a lot of people who were on the charts while I was growing up. So when did the real love for music light up in you?Music got my fancy at a young age when I was like five or six when I first got to understand what music really was and really enjoyed listening to it. By the time I was 13, I decided that music was what I wanted to do. I had posted a cover of a song on Facebook called ‘Simply Amazing’ by American singer Trey Songz. I shared it around on Facebook and it got a lot of traction for me and it just reached a new high. Then my manager thought I should make a video of it with me singing in it and yeah that’s how it really clicked. So it was a Facebook video which appeared on YouTube. Do songs like Phobia, Holiday, or Personal, give out a message to all your fans? Well not really, I mean, we just write about how we feel which is a concept on how we all work. I like Holiday which is a bit of fun, while Phobia was like more of heart break song, and I know people would like that kind of stuff, it’s just got that romantic side to it. So do these songs stem from your real life experiences?Some of it kind of influenced it a bit, while some of it isn’t, and some is just made up. Well going back in time I liked this girl and so it comes from there. Well the songs are a little bit of my own experiences, and so like I said, like Personal has a line about my ex girlfriend, with a line... you used to flirt with your friends. And as I said I guess a lot is also made up. Every artist goes to a lot of obstacles to reach the top, you have succeeded quite easily. How did you do it?I feel like my career is only just started, and I am sure there will be some obstacles in the way in the future. I think for now it’s been pretty okay, I’ve been on the top, so I’m fine. Your EP ‘Talk with Ya’ has both the songs Phobia and Personal. Phobia is slow, while Holiday is a bit up tempo. How do the fans react to such songs?The fans really like Phobia because it’s much slower, while Personal is danceable, which is really good, so they get a chance to choose what they really like, they have both, songs that they can chill out to at a party and the other to just listen to. Besides singing do play any musical instruments?I really want to learn the piano; I think it’s a very beautiful instrument So in the future what songs would you like to make, slow or maybe a few dance numbers?I would like to release music that has everything, that has both slow and fast numbers.Coming to your first visit to Mumbai, when you knew you were coming to India, what is the first thought that came to your mind?I am really happy to be in India, even if it’s just 5 days. It’s amazing to see such a diverse culture out here. I love the people, they’re so friendly. Everyone who I met, asked me about how I liked the country. They were really very nice and kind to me. So have you heard or watched any Bollywood movies?I have heard a lot of Bollywood and there’s this actor that we have been talking about with my team, I think his name is Shah Rukh Khan and yes I want to watch his movies before I go or take some DVDs home with me. You also have a tour with The Vamps coming up soon, are you also planning a collaboration with them also?Yes I have a tour with them in March and about collaboration well who knows, we are all friends and it may happen. So for now, it’s just the tour with them and just have some fun and yes we want to come to India again. I love the country and will be here again soon. The Vamps are supposed to be on tour in India in June this year and I’m coming back with them. Do you plan on shooting any music videos in India, considering that there have been many artists like Coldplay who have also shot videos here? Now that I have been here I definitely want to shoot a video, and yes the next time we come to India, or maybe when we come in June and also at the end of the year, we may just decide on it. We would probably take in a bit of the Indian culture in it and yes wear something like this (points to his blue kurta). So what are your dreams and aspirations?To take over the world in a good way, musically have my music everywhere. What are your future plans?Just keep releasing songs and to release more music, travel around the world....... just to have fun.... really.What memories would you take from India?I take memories of the people, how they relate to me, the things I’ve seen on the streets, everything around me, the food. I want to try some street food, we haven’t really done that yet, we have kind of hotel food at the moment, so I want to try the dosa. So finally we come to a question many girls would want to know. Do you have a girlfriend?No (laughs). I don’t, I am singleAny message for your fans? I love you guys, thank you for being so supportive, Shukriya. Text and Photos by Verus Ferreira

US CHINA (IMPORT TAX)
 Suraj Kumar  
 1 April 2018  
Art

Followed by the founding of the People’s Republic of China, USA and China have a long period of estrangement. The relation between US and China is very strong yet complex. The relations here refer to the international relations between both the countries. There are a huge amount of trade between both the countries make it somewhat political positive relations, yet some significant issues exist. The relation between the two has been described as the world’s most important bilateral relationship of the century by the world leaders. The countries are neither friends nor foes. The United States and China are clearly not allies. The United States has sought to build positive, comprehensive and cooperative relations with China by expanding their areas of cooperation and also mutually agreeing to the areas of disagreement. There are four annual dialogues held between the United States and China; the Diplomatic and Security Dialogue, the Comprehensive Economic Dialogue, the Law Enforcement and cybersecurity Dialogue, and the Social and Cultural Issues Dialogue which serves as a unique platform to promote bilateral understanding, discuss differences, expand consensus, increase cooperation, and build mutual trust between the two. The United States has put great emphasis on the need for both countries to enhance bilateral trust through formal dialogues, high-level exchanges, and expansion of people ties to ties. The United States approach to its economic relations with China has two major elements which are integrating China into the global, rules-based trading and economic system and also expanding United States exporters' and investors' access to the Chinese market.Recently Trump has directed the US trade representative to level tariffs about $50 billion worth Chinese imports. The mainstream media has been full of these scenarios past few weeks concerning about the potential for a China-US trade war, given that the tariff impositions by United States President Donald Trump imposed upon China in order to stop steel dumping and to protect the American jobs. Trump has increased the tariffs on Chinese imports in order to pressurize China to reduce its tariff rates, regardless of the number of products provided by China to the United States of America where the profit margin is set by United States of America itself. In addition, Trump has also planned to impose new investment restrictions to take strict actions against China at the World Trade Organisation. The move, on the steel and aluminum tariffs also took aim at China, which is heightening concerns of a global trade war that could destabilize the global economy. The US is planning to continue to engage diplomatically with China to reduce the trade imbalance between both countries. It is said that the tariffs would focus on the theft of US technologies. The investigation concluded that China has stolen United States companies into turning over their intellectual property through a series of state-run structural maneuvers, which includes its requirement for foreign companies partners with Chinese companies to access the Chinese market. The investigation has claimed that China has stolen US intellectual property by hacking US computer networks. According to the United States of America’s  International Trade Commission, the current average tariff on imports from China is about 3 percent. Low production costs in Latin America and Asia bring cheap goods in the United States of America, but tariffs would increase the cost of selling Chinese-made goods into the U.S. — which in fact appears to be Trump's goal. Administration officials have expressed concerns about China’s growing ambitions in industries like semiconductors, telecommunications equipment, and other high-tech exports. The tariff rates imposed by China has been measured and it was found out that it has been hit back at exactly the same voters that Trump is eagerly protesting. China has in fact taken a measured response to hurt Trump’s political base rather than swinging an ax over 1300 different products. China's Commerce Ministry on Friday urged the US to avoid placing bilateral trade ties in danger and also said they were not afraid of a trade war. Beijing's measures suspending tariff concessions will target 128 US products including pork, wines and seamless steel tubes and a 25-percent tariff on pork and recycled aluminum products. The Trump administration’s tax proposal, which is said to include cutting the corporate tax rate to 15 percent and also providing a one-time repatriation tax rate for trillions of dollars in the international earnings stashed overseas, is aiming at luring USA’s firms to remit overseas profits home and also to bring such operations back to the United States itself. The tax changes by the United States including the tariffs imposed on imports would tempt the Chinese manufacturers to now invest mostly in the United States of America and to sabotage the competitiveness of Chinese exports. The moto is for China to give up on an old growth model of its relying on exports and to increase its economic transformation. If the initiative of Trump’s maximum 15 percent corporate tax rate is approved by the US Congress, it could flash increased foreign investments into the United States of America. Also, re-shoring of USA’s businesses would be happening to create a shock to the global and Chinese economy as a whole. China might have to cut its own domestic corporate tax in this possible case.The tariffs imposed by the United States on China will not only affect China but it might hurt other countries too as it is true that China exports a lot of steel to the United States but more than that Brazil, Canada, Mexico and other countries do. The metals are used in a huge range of industrial applications that include cars and infrastructures. It is questionable that the imports might pose a threat to the natural security of the country. The United States is the world biggest steel importing country in the world. The top shipment of steel is done by Canada. But the ones affected by this also includes Japan and South Korea. China is not one of the Top 10 countries from which the United States imports steel. In fact, it is not even included in the Top 10 list of steel importers. It is said by trade experts that if Trump goes that route, even U.S. allies like Canada, South Korea, Mexico could be willing to stick tariffs of their own on U.S. exports like agricultural products, or picking non-U.S. goods — like Airbus planes over Boeing models. Beijing is said to take necessary measures to protect its interests if the final decision of the United States affects the country. The unfinished products made from steel are sent to South Korea and Vietnam where the workers put the final touch on the products and ships the finished products to the United States. After that, it is marked as a Vietnamese or Korean import. If that path is closed it indirectly affects China. If Trump invokes Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act, as is recommended, then it is said that he tends to believe that it is hurting the natural security. Trump must respond to the reports by April 11 and 19 for steel and aluminum, respectively to avoid the risk of trade wars and the threat of natural security being imposed on the country.

LABOR DAY - 1st May
 Suraj Kumar  
 2 April 2018  

LABOR DAYinternational labors day also known as International workers day. This day is an annual holiday to celebrate the contribution of workers in the society and also to celebrate the working classes that is promoted during the international labor movement, which occurs every year internationally on 1st may. labor union movement was specifically the eight-hour movement which apostle eight hours of work, eight hours of dalliance, and eight hours of rest. Although some countries celebrate workers day on other dates suggestive to them, such as in Canada and the United States celebrate their labors day on the first Monday of September and considered the unofficial end of summers. This date was assigned by the pan-international organization of socialist and political parties to monumentalize the Hay-market affair, which originated at Chicago on May 4, 1886. The1904 Sixth conference of the second international noted that all social democratic party organization and trade unions of all countries to substantiate energetically on first of may for the legal conduct of the eight-hour day for universal peace. In the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movement started growing N number of days were chosen by the trade unionists as the day to celebrate labor day.LABOUR DAY IN UNITED STATESin 1882, Mathew Maguire, a mechanism, first proposed the idea of labor day holiday on the first Monday of September. while working as the secretary of the central labor union in New York. after witnessing the labor festival held in Toronto, Canada. in 1887, Oregon was the first state of united state to make it an official public holiday. after that, it became an official federal holiday, in 1894 around thirty US states officially celebrated labor day.I honor the American labor movement and contributes that workers have created a strength and well being of the country. it is known as labor day weekend. it is reorganized as the federal holiday labor day is "unofficial end of summers "because it marks the end of summer season. Many take a two week holiday during the two weeks ending labor day weekend. school districts resume its classes around the labor day weekend.many Americans enjoy hosting and attending picnics with family and friends on the labor day, barbecued meals are often served, especially such typically American fare as hot dog and hamburgers. the fruits and vegetables of summers, such as watermelon and green beans. cold drinks and cold desert usually round out the celebration.many political parties host a grand picnic at which speeches are made. This creates the welfare and upliftment of workers.LABOUR DAY IN INDIAin India, labor day is a public holiday held every year on 1st may it is celebrated ad Antarrashtriya shramik diwasLabour day in India was first celebrated in Madras (today Chennai) on may 1,1983. This initiative was taken by the Kisan party of Hindustan, This party was governed by Comrade Singaravelar, he arranged two meetings to celebrate this occasion. One meeting was held at Triplicane Beach, and other took place at the beach opposite to the Madras high court. Here Singaravelar passed a resolution the government should immediately announce the national holiday on may-day or labor day in India. He also accentuated the need for non-violence within a political party. This time became the first when the red flag was used in India.However, they took the courage to stand united and raised their voices. accordingly, they were all risking their jobs in order to protest against injustice. eventually, government heard their plea and the workers hours were reduced to 8 hours. the labor day is celebrated not only in India but around the globe. this proposed the power of unity among the people and also was a golden inspiration for the children as the bond of togetherness. in addition to advancement, there are public speeches held by the political leaders' of various parties in order to inspire and celebrate the may-day. this day Maharashtra and Gujrat achieved their statehood. in 1960 once the old Bombay was divided on the basis of language so the day there is called as Maharashtra diwas or Gujrat diwas respectively.LABOUR DAY IN AUSTRALIAlabor day in Australia is a public holiday on the dates which changes between the change in states and territories. it is the first of October in Australia capital, New South Wales and South Australia, it is second Monday of March in Victoria and Tasmania, first Monday of March in Western Australia, in northern territories and Queensland it is first Monday in May. The first march for the nine-hour day by the labor movement occurred in Melbourne on April 21, 1856. This day stonemasons and building workers on building sites around Melbourne stopped working and marched from the University of Melbourne to parliament house to achieve eight hour day. their direct protest was succeeded. LABOUR DAY IN SOUTH AFRICAthe historical struggle of workers and their trade unions internationally for creating unity between working people in their struggle to win fair employment and most importantly to establish a culture of human and worker rights to ensure that these are glorified in national law of those countries aligned to the international labor organization. in early 1994 South Africa demand for the annual observance of the day as a public holiday. Hence after a series of a struggle, it was declared the official public holiday on 1 may each year since 1994. LABOUR DAY IN CHINA1st may is the official holiday for the people republic of China, prior to 2008, it was three days holiday but now its just one day. although the other two days are "made up" by working either the preceding or following weekend.in 2000, labor day became a "golden week", created by the Chinese government. here the workers and shopkeepers take a week off and go shopping and travel.in 2007 there was the three-day holiday to make a way for three traditional festivals- Qingming, dragon boat, and mid-autumn - to became national holidays.each year during a labor day holiday millions of people goes to the road trip, causing traffic jams and overcrowding problems in big cities, such as Beijing and Shanghai and other popular travel destinations.LABOUR DAY IN JAPANmay-day is not officially celebrated by the Japanese government as a national holiday, but as it lies between other national holidays a majority of workers celebrate it. These series of days form a "golden week" together with 29 April "showa day", 3rd may "Constitutional memorial day", 4th may "greenery day", 5th May "children's day". worker generally take a day off and join public rallies and labor union gathering.the origin of labor day emphasized how noting is impossible if we stand united. now it is celebrated to honor the hard work done as well as to honor those who went out to fight for the rights of laborers. Labour day is a special occasion when people celebrate the true spirit of togetherness and unity. This shows that small fragment unites together and are enough to make changes in society. Which indicates how effectively the struggle can bring up the positive reforms of the working class in the society. It inspires and turns on a heat to fight against the injustice.

Riots- An analysis of human nature in a Democratic Polity
 Suparna Banerjee  
 3 April 2018  

The Beginning:In the wake of recent riots following the Ram Navami procession in Asansol-Ranigunj in West Bengal, this article is interested to analyse human nature and how does it function in a democratic political culture. The name of Adolf Eichmann is probably known only to a limited circle of people- those affected by his actions and those who studied him later. He was the second in command of the Nazi SS who was part of the team which formulated the policy of Final Solution of the Jews, fled to Argentina after the Second World War,captured by Mossad in May, 1960 , and hanged to death after a trial in Tel Aviv. What is important to know in this chronology of events is that his trial was televised throughout the world to present the extent of atrocities committed by the Nazis (it is however, not to suggest that Israel did not have any hidden agenda of not only gaining sympathy worldwide against the holocaust deniers but also prove its righteousness in putting a man responsible for the death of millions from their own community to trial despite being a nascent nation state which would help them bring their legal authority to the limelight) and that German born American political theorist Hannah Arendt wrote a book based on this trial, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A report on the Banality of Evil to analyse the extent of evil nature of human beings which prompted these people to adopt such horrific methods that led to the extermination of millions of a race from Europe. Putting in perspective- The curious case of West Bengal:Although what is happening in West Bengal following the Ram Navami incident is simply nothing compared to the above-mentioned incident, what is necessary to point out is an analysis of human nature. Bengal has been witness to comparatively lesser riots than northern and central regions of the country, except during the period of the country’s Freedom Movement where riots broke out for example in Noakhali which Mahatma Gandhi himself came to quell. Bengal’s experience of dealing with riots is very less- the last one (post the assassination of Indira Gandhi where the Sikhs were targeted) being successfully quelled by strong hand of Jyoti Basu, the long standing Chief Minister (CM) of Communist Party led West Bengal, preventing any reactions against the Sikh population. The Bengali Bhadrolok class has always taken pride in the fact that they are way above the rest of India class wise, where class does not represent any economy but signify a combination of factors like culture, politics, and social cohesion. This kind of feeling has taken its roots since the time of Bengal renaissance when the society led by some of the well-known Bengali intellectuals and social reformers like Raja Rammohan Roy and Debendranath Tagore ignited a rational thinking among the people (although there are existing views which proclaim that their efforts to modify conservative elements within Hinduism is a step towards making it more acceptable among the populace). We have traversed a long path in History, but we have always loved to bask in the glory of these past achievements and held it very close to our heart. In this long journey we have compromised on our ideals and ideas for petty gains and hence stands no chance of claiming to be on a higher pedestal of moral consciousness. The narratives coming up in the recent communal clashes in Asansol-Raniganj is the same that come up as mud-slinging and blame game following any such similar incidents. The ruling party blames the other, specially the one which has a history of using riot as an instrument to enter the political arena of a geographical space (we have not forgotten Muzaffarnagar yet!), the other accuses the ruling party of allowing the incident to flare up to such an extent by preventing the administration to perform its taskHuman Nature- an analysis:The nature of human as an animal appears to have remain unchanged. The three actors in this case are- BJP’s popular face in Bengal is a Central Minister and earlier voice to many a hit song in Bollywood, Babul Supriyo. CM Mamata Banerjee who has a history of resorting to disruption and chaos in the political culture throughout her rise in the political ladder as an opposition candidate. And finally, the common people who form the significant tool of the implementation of riots as political instruments. All the three actors have their roots in the same society which claims to have nurtured secularism as its core value- so much so that at least the 34 years of communist rule should have been able to nourish a religion-less political thinking. But unfortunately, it failed. It appears everything has gone in vain. Instead of moving towards a more civilised state of nature (at least that’s what Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau would have dreamt of!) we are moving towards a state of animalistic carnal nature of killing one of our own. And here the study of human nature like the one by Arendt attains significance. Human nature is basically animalistic. War, battles, human atrocities, rapes is not something new. It has been going on for generations and has filled the pages of history far too much. What therefore changed were two things- the reasons for the behaviour and the modus operandi of the actions. The basic instinct of performing such acts never left human essence. What Arendt argued was a lack of “thinking” in performing such acts. It always waited for the trigger to manifest its worst nature. With sophistication in our reasoning and societal structure we began our quest for myriad ways of being increasingly animalistic with the sole reason of being powerful over the others. Being powerful allows us to make happen whatever may not otherwise have been within our reach. For our convenience we have given names to these power – some are democratic, some dictatorship while some others are monarchy. But behind all these terminology lies the ever-burning instinct of more power. Democracy is considered to be the best among the worst because it also has its own share of pitfalls and disadvantages like the others but its packaging and marketing by the liberals have been way better than the propagators of the others. What makes such incidents like riots in a democratic polity interesting is, it is the sovereign which was handed the power to rule on behalf of its citizens takes a step backward towards chaos and disorder from where it was duty bound to save the people. Carl Schmitt, the crown jurist of the Nazi era provided an adequate justification in this regard. He claimed it is the sovereign which has the power to decide the cases of ‘exception’ in which it is entitled by the very constitution which binds its action, to take steps to address such scenario. Those exceptional circumstances would facilitate the process of labelling an ‘enemy’ and then follow it up with justification of waging a war against them. Such a logicality was used during the Nazi era to legitimise its actions against the Jews who were made to look responsible for the plight of the Germans post the First World War. The rhetoric in riot like situation is not very different. There is an enemy and there is a saviour. The saviour (Hindus) can legitimise its rule only at the cost of the enemy (the other social groups mainly minorities like Muslims). At the same time, it does not absolve the rulers from its actions or rather (in)action. Following Schmitt, the rulers have misused the legitimacy for its trivial political bargain at the cost of the sovereign who has handed them the power to rule on their behalf.Last but not the least:It is important to think why such incidents happen and how are human beings capable of such atrocities despite claiming it to have travelled the civilisational ladder. The political classification only gives us a convenient way out to explain our deeds- a dictator would directly kill people and in a democracy the ruler would instigate or sit back while people are killing each other. Rather it becomes convenient to perform such acts within a democratic scenario (because accountability comes later) in the absence of the baggage of pre-conceived public opinion against the system. Therefore Democracy, funnily, provides that space where leaders are capable of doing anything until it becomes too little too late. #smblogcontest

EARTH DAY- 22nd, April
 Suraj Kumar  
 3 April 2018  

International Mother Earth Day (or Earth Day)The Earth Day is celebrated on 22 April 2018 each year to celebrate the Mother Earth. Thus, Earth Day is to remind us of the importance of maintenance of the life balance.History:●US senator and environment enthusiast: Gaylord Nelson was the driving force behind the celebrations.●The idea came to Senator Nelson on witnessing the infamous 1969 oil spill in California.●The spill took a toll on the ecological system of California and the Outlook of the nation itself.●Driven by the desire to involve the youth in the cause of the environment. ●It was due to the reason that an ideal date i.e. 22 April was chosen (between the spring break as well as final examinations).●Initially, the event had just 20 million supporters and by the 90s the figure swelled up to 200 million.●Then came the path-breaking legislation in form of Rio Declaration of 1992. This legislation put more effort into economic, social and environmental reforms. ●Today, the figure of the followers is estimated to be beyond 1 billion.  As a result, each year volunteers gather to plant trees, ensure cleanliness of the vicinity and achieving success through sustainable goals. Earth Day 2018 Theme:Leading the process of change is the Earth Day Network. It has been decided to dedicate the celebrations this year to End Plastic Pollution.The organization is creating and finding support for ensuring utility. creating support for a global effort to eliminate single-use plastics along with global regulation for the disposal of plastics.  EDN will educate millions of people about the health and other risks associated with the use and disposal of plastics, including pollution of our oceans, water, and wildlife, and about the growing body of evidence that decomposing plastics are creating serious global problems.From poisoning and injuring marine life to the ubiquitous presence of plastics in our food to disrupting human hormones and causing major life-threatening diseases and early puberty, the exponential growth of plastics is threatening our planet’s survival. EDN has built a multi-year campaign to End Plastic Pollution.  Our goals include ending single-use plastics, promoting alternatives to fossil fuel-based materials, promoting 100 percent recycling of plastics, corporate and government accountability and changing human behavior concerning plastics.EDN’s End Plastic Pollution campaign includes four major components:Leading a grassroots movement to support the adoption of a global framework to regulate plastic pollution;Educating, mobilizing and activating citizens across the globe to demand that governments and corporations control and clean up plastic pollution;Educating people worldwide to take personal responsibility for plastic pollution by choosing to reject, reduce, reuse and recycle plastics, andPromoting local government regulatory and other efforts to tackle plastic pollution.Earth Day Network will leverage the platform of Earth Day and the growing interest in the 50th Anniversary of Earth Day in 2020 as a catalyst for global action.Education is the foundation for progress. We need to build a global citizenry fluent in the concepts of climate change and aware of its unprecedented threat to our planet. We need to empower everyone with the knowledge to inspire action in defense of environmental protection.Environmental and climate literacy is the engine not only for creating green voters and advancing environmental and climate laws and policies but also for accelerating green technologies and jobs.may be hard to imagine that before 1970, a factory could spew black clouds of toxic into the air or dump tons of toxic waste into a nearby stream, and that was perfectly legal. They could not be taken to court to stop it.How was that possible? Because there was no EPA, no Clean Air Act, no Clean Water Act. There were no legal or regulatory mechanisms to protect our environment.In spring 1970, Senator Gaylord Nelson created Earth Day as a way to force this issue onto the national agenda. Twenty million Americans demonstrated in different U.S. cities, and it worked! In December 1970, Congress authorized the creation of a new federal agency to tackle environmental issues, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Earth Day began in America in 1970 as a day to celebrate the planet and encourage people to be more environmentally friendly. It is now an annual event and is widely regarded as the beginning of the modern environmental movement. Activities associated with the day often include planting trees, raising awareness about recycling, volunteering for green projects, and reducing the number of energy people consume. Earth Day is supported by a host of celebrities, including Leonardo Di Caprio, Emma Watson, Miley Cyrus and Matt Damon. Earth Day has become one of the most widely celebrated environmental events across the globe. On this day, events are held worldwide to increase awareness and appreciation of the Earth’s natural environment. Currently, it is celebrated in more than 192 countries each year. It was originally celebrated at Spring Equinox around 21 March every day but now the United Nations has designated 22 April as the International Mother Earth Day. Earth Day Network coordinates this annual day across the globe.Earth Day is all about appreciating the uniqueness of our planet Earth with its incredible biodiversity. On this day various national and international activities are conducted to understand the biodiversity and how should we protect our nature – plants, animals, and environment.Today, Earth Day Network (EDN) works with numerous partners and communities in more than 192 countries to raise the environmental concerns and diversify and mobilize the environmental movement. Apart from this, a large number of communities celebrate Earth Week and create awareness among other people regarding environmental issues.Various Earth Day FactsEarth Day Flag is called Ecology Flag. It was created by cartoonist Ron Cobb and was first published in the Los Angeles Free Press on 7 November 1969. The Ecology symbol resembles Greek letter theta and is a combination of the letters “E” and “O” taken from the words “Environment” and “Organism,” respectively. The flag consists of thirteen alternating-green-and-whites stripes with a symbol on the left-hand side. Earth Day Anthem is a universal song associated with Earth Day. Its lyrics are set to the tone of Ludwig van Beethoven’s “Ode to Joy” melody on which the official anthem of the European Union is based.“Joyful joyful we adore our Earth in all its wondermentSimple gifts of nature that all join into a paradiseNow we must resolve to protect herShow her our love throughout all timeWith our gentle hand and touchWe make our home a newborn worldNow we must resolve to protect herShow her our love throughout all timeWith our gentle hand and touchWe make our home a newborn world.”Earth Day became an international event on 21 March 1971, when UN’s Secretary-General U Thant spoke about it at a Peace Bell Ceremony at the United Nations in New York City. Since then, the United Nations Earth Day ceremony continues each year on the day of the vernal equinox (March 20th or 21st), with the ringing of the UN Peace Bell at the very moment of the equinox.More than 20 million people and thousands of local schools and communities participated in the first Earth Day of the United States that took place on 22 April 1970. This huge turnout made the first Earth Day as the largest organized celebration in the history of the United States. The success of Earth Day helped to influence the United States’ government to create stronger laws to protect the environment.Earth Day Network, the organization behind the Earth Day movement, works with over 22000 partners in more than 192 countries worldwide to raise environmental concerns. Today more than 1 billion people participate in earth day activities each year to make it one of the largest movements on earth.Earth Day 2000 combined the ambitious spirit of the first Earth Day with the international grassroots activism of Earth Day 1990. This was the year when Earth Day used the Internet to expand its reach and organize activists across several continents. The message was loud and clear and it proved invaluable domestically and internationally.In the year 2009, United Nations officially renamed Earth Day as International Mother Earth Day.On Earth Day 2012, more than 100,000 people rode bikes in China to reduce CO2 emissions and save fuel.Every year on April 22, men, women, children, groups and communities all around the world gather together and put all their efforts to collect garbage, plant saplings, encourage people to go for recycling, sign petitions and discuss issues to save this planet from depleting resources.In few places, earth day is celebrated throughout the week to expand its reach so that more people take part and put their efforts to preserve the environment.Earth Day SignificanceEarth Day is a day dedicated to increasing awareness about the Earth, its issues, and problems. Today, more than 1 billion people now participate in Earth Day activities each year, making it the largest civic observance in the world. As a result of this remarkable event, various policy agreements and acts are sanctioned such as Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Endangered Species Act, and many others.Earth Day has gained significant significance in the past. This is due to the fact that people have been witnessing the shortage of food, skyrocketing fuel prices, increased global warming and changing weather patterns. It is a day that acknowledges the importance of our planet. People come to know about the contemporary environmental issues such as global warming, depleting resources etc. Both adults and kids become conscious about the strategies and tactics which they can adopt in day-to-day life to ensure cleaner environments.Various suggestions are brought to light about recycling, energy conservation, increasing plant and tree growth, save water, respect nature, reduce toxins in the air, keep the environment clean, reduce air pollution, planting trees and flowers to increase oxygen and love and respect towards all animals who inhabit the earth. There are small ideas with the huge impact such as – plant a tree every year, switch off the light when not in use, use recyclable bags for grocery shopping etc. presented during Earth Day celebrations.Apart from the individual households, even companies are encouraging their employees to contribute their part when it comes to saving this planet from degradation. Making use of public transportation, carpooling to reduce pollution, switching off AC after office hours, motivating people to take less printouts, using renewable sources to generate power, allowing employees to engage in tele or video conferencing, using CFL lights  and bulbs, extracting geothermal energy to heat up office buildings are few of the initiatives companies are taking to save energy and make this planet safe for our future generations.On the transportation side, companies are now manufacturing and selling hybrid and electric cars that do not make use of petrol or diesel to run. New technologies are coming in which are making these cars at par with that of cars running on petrol and diesel.If people implement some of these and make changes in their behaviors towards Mother Earth, then we would be able to make our planet a much better place to live in – also for coming generations.

Diamante Eco Adventure Parks Blossom Ventures in Costa Rica
 saurabh pant  
 11 April 2018  

Celebrate the Venture of North American Flair-Diamante Eco Adventure Parks Blossom Ventures in Costa RicaPeople do wish to have a proper North American flair when it comes to having Costa Rica Attraction being a tourist and having fun with risky games, adventure parks and high classifies natural tempo to create across the beautiful nation like Costa Rica with its unique boundaries, natural habitat and ecological status around.To make it virtually possible in it's actual stature around, A famous website with all the tips for adventure parks and eco sites comes in front to support by the name of Diamante Eco adventure Parks where you can visit easily and choose accordingly your fun trips across the whole beautiful country and gain benefits on your own accord to make your trip unique. Eco Adventure parks fun is a must What is the keenest Costa Rica Attractions is that it provides variability’s in the Eco parks to dilate, settle on and help people accomplish a unique experience once in a lifetime when they go back to their countries? Practically the nation offers varieties of Ecological places and parks, but you require a place where you can choose accordingly and have the best site to prove on for your own. This demand is easily settled by the Diamante Eco Adventure Parks who are specialized in providing high-quality eco-adventure parks in regional and national variety and help people have best of fun which is a must. It has been a common knowledge that without the fun of these parks, the tourist visit to this nation remains half, Thus entertainment is guaranteed once you chose the right one from the platform and thence by such virtue Diamante is a unique place to visit online and help yourself to the proper place across Costa Rica. Thrilling sites make the venture unique Finally, the most practical thing to select in concerns to Costa Rica Attractions is to have the right site to choose and thrill according to the chosen destination in a wider prominence. The local habitat and natural atmosphere offer various thrilling ride across the coastal and inter-regional heavy natural habitat prove area, thus you can trust the place. Yet, if you still look forward to deciding which thrilling site be the best you must require a platform that can guide and help you with all the issues cleared. This unique decision is also manageable at the Diamante EcoAdventure Parks which is able to give you maps and database of the all-regional information as a must. They are able to locate, separate and help equal distinctive personal accounts at once that make the journey as tourist unique for the national attraction. 

Mothers Day
 Suraj Kumar  
 13 May 2018  

How do you celebrate Mom?

Individualism vs. Collectivism
 Anuradha Singh  
 16 May 2018  

A few days back I read once again Ayn Rand’s Fountainhead, when I had read it earlier as a school going child I had not understood it at all. I had found it silly and boring; the old copy was still lying in the corner of my father’s bookshelf. My hand stretched involuntarily to pick up the yellow-paged old book a few days back. I started reading it late in the evening and kept at it into the night to finish in a readathon (like marathon) manner. This time I saw the book anew. It was fresh and ringed of issues and thoughts which are relevant even today, as they were at that time, in 1957, and I think they will be still relevant for years to come.The Russian immigrant writer was strong-willed, intelligent and years ahead of her time. The philosophical novel which she wrote then invited much criticism but soon it gained lots of popularity and sold millions of copies.  I feel the story of the protagonist though larger than life, why I am saying larger than life as the feelings, conditions, the circumstances which he goes through are little hard to find in today’s world. Many people go through times when they have to succumb to societal pressures, make deal with their ideas, priorities and sooner or later they do it for the sake of their family, friends, careers and what not. But Fountain head’s hero is not ready for a compromise. Not as a student, never as a professional. He is at war with the complete society. He does not give up even after being jobless, alone and broke. It is an amazing read, and I will not venture further. Those who have read it will understand the points which I have mentioned. Those who have not read it, I suggest should read it.Here I want to draw out the philosophy of Fountainhead. Ayn Rand supports individualism on the face of collectivism. It is hard to digest for an Indian, as all other societies but predominantly Indian’s have always been supporting collectivism. We have been always taught to sacrifice, bend, compromise for the sake of family, society, organization and many more. As psychology says a man is a social animal and likes to live in groups. Since the period when a man was a caveman he learned a lesson that if he has to survive then he should live in groups, otherwise he does not have a chance in front of the wild animals. The lessons taken in the jungle worked wonderfully till man dwelled in a cave. It gave him security, protection, recognition, power and many more. But once the wheel was made, the fire was ignited, mines were dug, and houses were constructed things changed.The civilized world came into being, with it came rules and regulations.  Discipline was ingrained and customs and traditions became prevalent and then staunch for the smooth running of the society. But, then it was possible for a man to live independently, think independently and work also. When I say independently it does not mean, to live like Robinson Crusoe alone on an island with no contact with the world. That is something totally different; it is a disorder if you choose to do it while living in this usual friendly world. When I say think independently means to take certain decisions, which could be distinct, advanced and revolutionary. It may not fit in with the run of the mill, prevalent set of thinking or working culture of a particular society. But if an individual finds it correct, if he or she has complete faith in his work, concept, project or whatever decision he or she has taken then that individual should go ahead with it with complete confidence. In short ‘dare.’In our own country, India and a huge list of foreign countries we have examples wherein we can see that since time immemorial society has ridiculed, tortured, outcasted individuals with advanced ideas which were completely strange, foreign to that generation. There is a long list, right from Galileo, the Wright Brothers, Edison, Marie Currie, Edward Jenner and many more had to go through great pains and efforts to make people realize the importance of their work. In India as well there have been many great men and women who have been educators, reformists, social workers, businessmen whose work was at first trashed but later on understood and hence accepted by people. Why is it so that people are not ready to accept anything new? I think one of the problems which I can perceive lies in the psyche. We humans or even animals get conditioned to a certain routine, habits, weather and almost everything. If we are doing a certain chore every day, or we have been listening about a certain notion over the years, coming down from parents, grandparents and so on; then our mind and even our body accept it without any resistance. In other words, we can say this is the training of a kind. Our body and mind get prepared to see and then accept certain things in a certain way. As in Fountainhead, the Americans of that time were used to see and hence build completely orthodox, conformist kind of buildings which is why they were not liking and hence opposing the innovative ideas of Howard Roark. Some are so influenced by a certain style of living, that they get upset and so angry and jealous to see innovation. Sometimes, these sensitive minds can see or judge that the idea in front of them is fantastic but they are not willing to change, they do not want to come out of their comfort zone. Here again, I will give an example of the manipulative journalist Ellsworth Toohey of Fountainhead. Just because he didn’t appreciate or understand Roark’s independent thinking, his revolutionary ideas, Toohey tried his level best to finish Roark. In the real world also, where we dwell, there are certain elements like Toohey who do not welcome fresh ideas. But I firmly believe that if we look at today’s world analytically, the progress which it has made in leaps and bounds is because of a germ of an idea, vision, a dream seen by an individual. It is very rare that a dream is carried forward by a society as a whole.  It is always initially an individual dream, may be taken up by the society much later. If the individual manages to convince the society of his dream then it propels into a nationwide, statewide revolutionary idea, but never in the beginning.With assurance, I say that individualism, (as in liberty to try new things, set on a new path, try new ways at looking at this good old world) is much greater and better way of living. It should be allowed, helped, propagated and seen as navigators of the progressive world. Collectivism may have helped us in certain situations; where great upheaval is required to turn the old world structure into a new one. But here, I must point out; even this great revolution is always started by one man, one situation. To be always be trapped in the shackles of society’s beliefs, their likings, their fears, their conceptions or misconceptions, how far one can carry this heavy load. There will always come a time when one would like to dump the load and think and move freely.  After all, we are genetically distinct from the sheep which follows each other with precision. We are at the peak of the ecosystem because of the structure of our brain. This boiling pot requires fresh ideas for sustenance, as only change is constant and always needed. A caterpillar which is green colored transforms into iridescent blue and does not stay green.By Anuradha Singh.

The pseudo alliances
 niyati saxena  
 24 September 2018  

In a friendship of two parties, the powerful helps the inferior one to plummet disparities among them. We have seen many fables in Indian mythology like Krishna-Sudama, Krishna-Arjun, Trijata-Sita, Draupadi-Krishna and so on. But in modern world, the powerful one defames the inferior one for his own gluttonous purposes. We can't establish entente cordiale with the country who is incessantly suppressing us by playing witty games. Obviously the country I am talking about is U.S., many moons ago, dollar became the most reliable & stable currency in the world, all the countries promulgated it unanimously and relinquished gold to acquire dollar, this is when it all started.All the countries are at risk of sanctions. They all are like a marionette whose strings are managed and controlled by Mr. Trump. Whichever country goes against him, he makes that country's economy miserable like he did in Iran's case by imposing sanctions. Recently Russia has also become the victim of the same and if any country dares to buy paraphernalia from Russia then that country will be in trouble and Chinese military is already facing this punishment. India is in great obfuscation of what to choose among the S400 and Thaad. No matter how powerful Russian S400 is, no matter how many fighter jets it can destroy, but Thaad is an American missile defense system, and American companies can't incur loss. If India refuses to buy Thaad, then there is a fear of sanctions. Same thing America has done in COMCASA agreement, by signing LEMOA, BECA and COMCASA India and US became allies, but in reality it is an act of subjugation. Why to act like a slave? Why to blow US's trumpet unnecessarily? We are not the perpetrators, still we live in apprehension. Now it's time to make some effective strategies against US. When all the countries will walk hand in hand by burying the hatchet and will make up their mind to fight against dollar. It won't be a Herculean task at all.

The pseudo alliances
 Niyati Saxena  
 24 September 2018  
Art

In a friendship of two parties, the powerful helps the inferior one to plummet disparities among them. We have seen many fables in Indian mythology like Krishna-Sudama, Krishna-Arjun, Trijata-Sita, Draupadi-Krishna and so on. But in modern world, the powerful one defames the inferior one for his own gluttonous purposes.We can't establish entente cordiale with the country who is incessantly suppressing us by playing witty games. Obviously the country I am talking about is U.S., many moons ago, dollar became the most reliable & stable currency in the world, all the countries promulgated it unanimously and relinquished gold to acquire dollar, this is when it all started.All the countries are at risk of sanctions. They all are like a marionette whose strings are managed and controlled by Mr. Trump. Whichever country goes against him, he makes that country's economy miserable like he did in Iran's case by imposing sanctions. Recently Russia has also become the victim of the same and if any country dares to buy paraphernalia from Russia then that country will be in trouble and Chinese military is already facing this punishment.India is in great obfuscation of what to choose among the S400 and Thaad. No matter how powerful Russian S400 is, no matter how many fighter jets it can destroy, but Thaad is an American missile defense system, and American companies can't incur loss. If India refuses to buy Thaad, then there is a fear of sanctions. Same thing America has done in COMCASA agreement, by signing LEMOA, BECA and COMCASA India and US became allies, but in reality it is an act of subjugation.Why to act like a slave? Why to blow US's trumpet unnecessarily? We are not the perpetrators, still we live in apprehension. Now it's time to make some effective strategies against US. When all the countries will walk hand in hand by burying the hatchet and will make up their mind to fight against dollar. It won't be a Herculean task at all.

Eat the best foods to get fabulous skin – The right nutrition is vital for health
 Leona Zoey  
 10 January 2019  

Everyone has got a favorite treatment or a face cream but beautiful skin actually starts with nourishment from inside. You should know that older cells are always shed and they’re soon replaced by younger ones and a constant supply of the main nutrients is vital for supporting rapid growth. When you eat the right balance of foods, you can give your skin the vital nutrients it requires to stay supple, soft and blemish-free.As much as you can try to resist it, human skin naturally ages. This is something we can’t avoid as this is the inevitable part of aging and age spots, wrinkles and overexposure to the sun, strong soaps, poor nutrition and chemicals leads to fast aging. Keeping this in mind, it is best to adopt a holistic approach towards your skin care routine. Importance of Nutrition for your healthIt is important for you to give proper nutrition to your health as because an unhealthy diet can always cause damage to metabolism, promote weight gain and also have an impact on the organs like liver and heart. Something that you eat will also have an impact on the health of your skin which is the largest organ of your body. Hence, it can be said without doubt that diet will always have an impact on your body and this makes it even clearer that what you eat can have a considerable impact on the aging of your skin and on the overall health. SkinB5, a product which offers solution to acne and other skin issues may also be tried for best results. Eat your way to smooth skin – Few of the best recommended foods#1: FATTY FISHHave you heard of fatty fish names like mackerel, salmon or herring which all have amazing benefits for a healthy skin? Well, you may not have known this but they are indeed rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids which are vital for maintaining good health of your skin. Omega-3 fatty acids are vital to keep skin supple, thick and moisturized. In case there is a sudden deficiency of omega-3 fats, this can lead to excessive dry skin. Omega-3 fats which are found in the aforementioned fishes reduce inflammation which can be the ultimate cause behind the acne and redness and it can even make your skin less sensitive to the harmful UV rays of the sun. They’re also a resource of all the Vitamin E which is one of the main antioxidants which helps your skin.#2: WALNUTSWalnuts also have several kinds of features which make them a perfect food for healthy skin. They’re indeed the best source of fatty acids which are those fats which aren’t made by the human body. Walnuts tend to be richer than most other forms of nuts in both omega-6 and 3 fatty acids. Remember that a diet which is too rich in omega-6 fats will induce inflammation and might lead to psoriasis. On the other hand, omega-3 fats help in reducing inflammation and also in the skin. #3: AVOCADOSAs long as healthy fats are concerned, avocados are rich in them and such fats benefit different function in the body like the health of your skin. In order to maintain a moisturized and flexible skin, you have to get enough of these fats. As per a study done on more than 700 women, it was found out that high consumption of total fat; especially the healthy fats found in avocados were directly related to springy and supple skin. Avocados are rich in Vitamin E which is a vital antioxidant which assists in protecting your skin from oxidative damage. Since Vitamin E is that nutrient which majority of the Americans don’t get enough of, it is better to have avocados. It is also essential for our skin to have enough amounts of Vitamin C for getting healthy and fresh skin. These days, it is rare to have a deficiency of Vitamin C but still there are few common symptoms like rough, dry and scaly skin which gets bruised easily. A 100 gm serving which is around half of an avocado offers 10% of RDI of Vitamin R and 18% of RDI of Vitamin C. #4: SUNFLOWER SEEDSIn general, seeds and nuts are the best sources of nutrients which are vital for healthy skin. One of the best examples are sunflower seeds. Just 1 ounce of sunflower seeds have 34% of antioxidant selenium, 10% of zinc and 5.4 grams of protein. Besides having this ability, sunflower seeds are one of the best sources of linoleic acid which is omega 6 fat which helps the skin in staying flexible, thick and moisturized. As per an observational study done on 5000 women, it was seen that a high intake of linoleic acid is always related to reduced risk of thin and dry skin due to aging. Hence, sunflower seeds are vital source of nutrients which include Vitamin E which is a vital antioxidant for your skin. #5: YELLOW OR RED BELL PEPPERSDid you know that bell peppers are a vital source of beta carotene? If you have 1 cup of chopped red bell pepper, this will have 92% of vitamin A. They can also be said to be the best resources of Vitamin C, the antioxidant which is required for creating collagen and which keeps the skin strong and firm. When you have a single cup of bell pepper, this offers you an impressive 318% of Vitamin C as per what you need daily. When you eat plenty of Vitamin C, this is usually associated with low change of skin aging and reduced wrinkles and other inevitable signs of aging.Therefore, when you eat the right things, this will definitely have the intended impact on your skin. So, when a healthy skin is all that is there in your mind, you should take enough vital nutrients for safeguarding your skin. Take into account the foods that are given on the list and start taking them to reap their benefits. 

StoryMirror in conversation with author Shrestha Mukherjee
 StoryMirror Feed  
 28 February 2019  
Art

Q: Please give details about your initial education and forming years of lifeA: I have done B. Pharm and MBA from NMIMS, Mumbai, with almost three years of corporate experience.Q: How did you get interested in literature? What inspired you to write?A: Writing was always my passion. The form of art which is closest to my heart. I stared writing poetry early 2017. The poets that inspired me and my poetry in Robert Frost and John Keats.Q: What difficulties did you have to face with respect to literary work?A: I feel the difficulty is managing time for writing. Creative writing needs time to develop. As Lisa See, an American writer and novelist says “Read a thousand books, and your words will flow like a river.”Q: What is your view about the present-day literary work?A: Present-day literary is innovative, personal and straight forward and beautiful in its own way. But personally, I love the charm of the classics like ‘DAFFODILS’ by WILLIAM WORDSWORTH or ‘THE ROAD NOT TAKEN’ by ROBERT FROST Q: Do you think that the emergence of digital and social media has given a new opportunity to creative writers?A: Yes, I’m a blogger which helps in showcasing my work globally and get feedback and comments from the strangers across the globe are motivating me to keep writing. So yes, social media gives an opportunity to share my work as well as learn from others.Q: Please tell us something about your literary workA: I write poems and prose about love and life usually with ciphers, this is the writing style which I am learning and interested to grow with. I draw inspiration from nature, the books I read, places I visit and people in meet. Proses I usually characterize by the use of full sentences and paragraphs that tend to proceed uninterrupted in a linear fashion until they are complete to give description to develop concrete, complete ideas, aiming to leave the reader with his own interpretation of it. Whereas poetry, on the other hand, I write in nonlinear fashion, using fragments of thoughts, feelings, and images to convey a certain message to the readers aiming to generate feelings which I hold while writing. Like smiling together with the reader or crying with the pain that the poetry holds.Q: What was your first literary work and how was it published? A: I started my journey initially with articles related to real life events or current events, which grew into short stories and novels. But I truly find myself now as a poet. I enjoy getting lost in time when I’m writing, liking living in a completely different universe.My poems are published in WordPress and StoryMirror. Q: How many ways literature can contribute to society in future?A: Literary works serve as a food for thought and encourage imagination and creativity. Exposing oneself to good literary works, is equivalent to providing one with the finest of educational opportunities. On the other hand, the lack of exposure to good literature is equal to depriving oneself from the opportunity to grow. Literature allows you to understand and experience systems of living and other worlds. We get a view of the inside looking out, a personal view and insight into the minds and reasoning of someone else. We can learn, understand, and appreciate it; and that how society can grow. Q: Where do you see yourself after 5 years in the literary world?A: In 5 years, I see myself to be a more matured writer with my few poetry books published. And to be growing in people’s heart.Q: What ways would you suggest to build a community for poets?A: Develop a place where poets can share there works and get feedbacks from fellow like minded poets. This will not only give more opportunity to grow but also to learn from each other, like a writer’s club.Q: What message would you like to give to aspiring new writers?A: Follow your heart, take risk, and have courage to take the road least traveled. Q: How was your experience of writing on StoryMirror? A: It is a very good platform for both readers and writers. Writers get a platform to share their work and get recognition for it whereas readers get good content to read and learn. Q: Would you like to say something about StoryMirror? A: Keep going strong. Wish you all the success as your success is your writers’ success. Here is the link to read my content https://storymirror.com/profile/4hkaj7vg/shrestha-mukherjee/poems

Cheap Flights to Hawaii With Points & Miles
 Anna Kucirkova  
 21 March 2019  

Ask almost anyone you know about their dream vacation they want to take in their lifetime and high possibilities are that they’ll say Hawaii. Each and every year, over 8 million visitors arrive in Hawaii to experience the distinct Islands in Hawaii where they can enjoy great food and drinks as they rest by the beach.However, the costs of flights to this place are quite high. People are often forced to save much for this adventure in Hawaii. Luckily, there are various ways you can make use of fly points and miles to book a flight and save lots of cash. This article looks into the different domestic and economy first-class reward booking alternatives you have as well as the lie-flat seat found in international business-class cabins outlooks.So, what are the best programs for booking Hawaiian award flights?Is making your life much easier the issue? plan ahead when you book a flight to Hawaii. The award space, as expected, is not always available due to the large number of individuals who pay for tickets in cash. However, one thing that makes it easy to book for Hawaiian awards is its flexible schedule.Here are some of the best programs or booking Hawaiian award flights.Korean Air SkyPassIf you have the Chase Rewards Points, the Korean Airline program is the best means to book for Hawaiian award flights on Delta for you.Booking ProcessKorean Air makes use of area-based award sheet for Sky. Sky Team partner awards booking. The fact that this airline contemplates all of the U.S as one region makes the redemption rates reasonable on Delta. You can look for awards space on the airline’s website from where you can book from. To view the imperative city pairings, it is important for you to note that you have to select the “SkyTeam Award” just after selecting “Redeem Miles”. Also, you can check the Air France’s website and then call the airline agents to book if you find the space.In addition, the Korean Air partners with the Hawaiian Airlines as well as the Alaska Airline provide you with other greats alternatives in case you need to fly to Hawaii. Through the partnership, you have vast range of non-stop paths to various Hawaiian airports that allow the Korean Air miles and fly points bookings. These booking points include Los Angeles, Portland, San Diego, Seattle (SEA), and Atlanta among others. However, the mileage need for these parties is different from the Delta flights requirements.Currently, the Korean Air does not partner with the Chase Rewards, but allows you to earn Marriot points which you can transfer to Korean at affordable rates.Air FranceThe second SkyTeam alternative for booking awards flight to Hawaii that we propose for you is Air France program.Booking Award Flights with Air FranceJust like with Korean Air, Air France enables you to book award flights on Delta as well as their other partner, the Alaska Airlines. However, unlike Korean Air, this airline fails to have distinct redemption rates. This airline has a number of benefits over the Korean Air. For instance, it is easier to look for award spaces on Delta by use of the airline’s online search. Further, Air France has the capability to book a one-way award ticket at a cost that is half the mileage cost.However, if you are planning to fly to Hawaii by booking an award ticket on Alaska Airlines, you have to go through a different process. It is not possible to find the award space by use of the online search by Air France, so you are required to call and request an agent to look or make use of America’s Airlines website to search. The Air France partners with both the Chase Ultimate Rewards and American Membership Reward to enable you to earn the Flying Blue miles and fly points.Singapore Airlines KrisFlyerThe Singapore Airlines program partners with the Star Alliance to offer you an option to book for Hawaiian award flights on the United Airlines. You have the option of using the United MileagePlus in booking for the awards. however, using the Singapore Airline to fly to Hawaii saves you many points.Booking Award Flights with Singapore Airlines KrisFlyerEarlier on, booking an award flight using Singapore Airlines’ partner required you to search for space on the website through Air Canada’s Aeroplan program to provide dates and number to a Singapore Airlines’ agent. Also, you could call to book. Luckily, you have much better alternatives since the Airlines enable you to look for and book award flights using the Star Alliance partners.The Singapore Airlines program partners with the four transferable points programs for you to earn points and miles.British Aiways Executive ClubThis airline gives you the option to fly to Hawaii. You can use the airline when you book for Alaska's award flights.Booking Award FlightsThis airline makes use of distance-based reward sheet which means that the total count of Avios needed in booking an award flight is determined by your distance of flight. Nonstop flights are, therefore, ideal for you to increase your points. The British Airways offers you with 12 non-stop flying points for booking including Anchorage (ANC), San Diego (SAN) and Seattle (SEA) among others.You can earn British Airways Avios by transferring points from Chase Ultimate Rewards or from the American Express Rewards. Moreover you can use co-branded credit card given by Chase.BonusThe main focus is on the non-stop paths to Hawaii. However, our bonus alternative has both the non-stop paths as well as those with a single connection. You can make use of the Singapore Airline miles or fly points to book a flight on Alaska Airline or the United Airlines.Finding Lie-Flat Business Class SeatsThis is a class that allows you to fly to Hawaii in style. Finding such a flight is hard, however. We offer you a list of the best Airlines that offer this business class. These include the Delta Air Lines Airbus A330 and Boeing 767, United Airlines Boeing 777, 767, and 757, American Airlines Airbus A330, Boeing 777 and 767 and Hawaiian and Airlines Airbus A330.ConclusionRegardless of the fly points you have, it is possible for you to book a Hawaiian award flight. The flight to Hawaii requires few fly points which enables you to tag along a friend or a family member. This information helps you book in less or no time by providing you with detailed information of the booking process.

Marital rape
 Rajabala Tripathy  
 1 April 2019  

**Marital Rape**it refers to unwanted intercourse by a man with his wife obtained by force, threat of force, or physical violence, or when she is unable to give consent. It is a non-consensual act of violent perversion by a husband against the wife where she is physically and sexually abused. Approximations have quoted that every 6 hours; a young married woman is burnt or beaten to death, or driven to suicide from emotional abuse by her husband. The UN Population Fund states that more than 2/3rds of married women in India, aged between 15 to 49 have been beaten, raped or forced to provide sex. In 2005, 6787 cases were recorded of women murdered by their husbands or their husbands’ families. 56% of Indian women believed occasional wife-beating to be justified.While marital rape gets documented in hospitals, cases are rarely registered, since it is excluded from the India Penal Code’s (IPC) definition of rape, says an analysis by Dilaasa, a counselling centre based out of K.B. Bhabha Hospital in Bandra. “Very rarely do patients tell us about marital rape. In a few cases, we see injuries and probe them. They are not aware this is wrong There is a pattern to the silence: women stay quiet about the assault when young, but are willing to report it at a later stage.’In the present day, studies indicate that between 10 and 14% of married women are raped by their husbands. Sexual assault by one’s spouse accounts for approximately 25% of rapes committed. Of the 664 cases, 159 cases were marital rape in 2015 at NGO Sneha’s crisis counselling centre in Dharavi. At Sneha’s counselling centres at KEM and Sion hospitals, of 218 cases of domestic violence received in 2015, 64 women said they had faced marital rape. Dilaasa analysed 13 cases of sexual violence from the emergency rooms of two of Mumbai’s public hospitals, Rajawadi in Ghatkopar, and Bhabha between 2011 and 2014 and found that only in five instances did the police register a case, mostly under Section 498 (A) (domestic violence), or the contentious Section 377 (unnatural offences). Dilaasa’s domestic violence data shows 60% married women report sexual violence, forced sex being its most common form. Dilaasa notes, “In almost all the cases, the police delay the collection of medical evidence from these hospitals and also do not wish to record an FIR. Union Minister Maneka Gandhi said that even if there was a law against marital rape, women won’t report it. According to the latest National Health and Family Survey (NFHS-4) for 2015-16, 5.4% women have experienced marital rape, under this category. But while the data on marital rape in India exists, marital rape as a crime, “does not exist”. And yet 5.4% of married Indian women say they have experienced marital rape. The figure recorded by NFHS-3 for 2005-6 was 9.5%. Sexual violence of course gets progressively worse if the husband is an alcoholic – 66% of married women experienced physical or sexual violence when “husband gets drunk often”. But only 10% of married victims of sexual violence seek help.The situation is worst in Manipur, 55% of married Manipuri women have been victims to these kinds of violence. Sikkim has the lowest number of victims at 3.5%. The National Health and Family Survey records both sexual and non sexual violence. The survey has looked at married women in the age group of 15-49. The highest form of non-sexual violence comes from men slapping women – 25% of women surveyed said they have been slapped. In all, 12% of married women said they have been pushed, shaken and have had things thrown at them. 10% said the husbands have pulled their arms or hair. Another 7.5% said they have been punched with fists or objects and 7% said they have been kicked, dragged and beaten up. More so, 1.5% said they have been choked or burnt and 0.8% said they have been threatened or attacked with guns, knives and other weapons.👉Marital rape may be broadly classified into following two categories:1.Sexual coercion by non-physical means– this form of coercion involves social coercion in which the wife is compelled to enter into sexual intercourse by reminding her of her duties as a wife. This form of coercion entails applying non-physical techniques and tactics like verbal pressure  like include making false promises, threatening to end the marital relationship, lies, not conforming to the victim’s protests to stop, etc.2. Forced sex– this involves the use of physical force to enter into sexual intercourse with an unwilling woman. It can be further classified into the following three categories:i. Battering Rape- this form of marital rape involves the use of aggression and force against the wife. The women are either battered during the sexual act itself or face a violent aggression after the coerced sexual intercourse. The beating may also occur before the sexual assault so as to compel her into sexual intercourse.ii. Force Only Rape- in this form of rape, the husband does not necessarily batter the wife, but uses as much force as is necessary to enter into sexual intercourse with the unwilling wife.iii. Obsessive Rape- this form of rape involves the use of force in sexual assault compiled with perverse acts against the wife. It involves a kind of sexual sadistic pleasure enjoyed by the husband.👉*Marital rape is illegal in 18 American States, 3 Australian States, New Zealand, Canada, Israel, France, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Soviet Union, Poland and Czechoslovakia. In India, a marriage is a bond of trust and that of affection. A husband exercising sexual superiority, by getting it on demand and through any means possible, is not part of the institution. Legislators use results of research studies as an excuse against making marital rape an offence, which indicates that many survivors of marital rape, report flash back, sexual dysfunction, emotional pain, even years out of the violence and worse, they sometimes continue living with the abuser. For these reasons, even the latest report of the Law Commission has preferred to adhere to its earlier opinion of non-recognition of “rape within the bonds of marriage” as such a provision may amount top excessive interference wit the marital relationship. Rape in any form is an act of utter humiliation, degradation and violation rather than an outdated concept of penile/vaginal penetration. Restricting an understanding of rape reaffirms the view that rapists treat rape as sex and not violence and hence, condone such behavior in India. The importance of consent for every individual decision cannot be over emphasized. A woman can protect her right to life and liberty, but not her body, within her marriage, which is just ironical. Women so far have had recourse only to section 498-A of the IPC, dealing with cruelty, to protect themselves against “perverse sexual conduct by the husband”. But, where is the standard of measure or interpretation for the courts, of ‘perversion’ or ‘unnatural’, the definitions within intimate spousal relations? Is excessive demand for sex perverse? Isn’t consent a sine qua non? Is marriage a license to rape? There is no answer, because the judiciary and the legislature have been silent.👉*India’s parliamentarians just could not find it in them to treat married and unmarried women equally, on matters of rape. “Married women only have the option of using section 498A of the Indian Penal Code, which lays down provisions on cruelty, if they need to allege sexual violence against their husbands,” says Kavita Krishnan, secretary of the All India Progressive Women’s Association.And although Section 377 is known as the law which prohibits “gay sex,” it in fact prohibits “unnatural sex,” an act which can take place between straight people as well. “Sometimes women have used Section 377 if they want to press charges of rape against their husbands,” says Krishnan.Section 375, the provision of rape in the Indian Penal Code (IPC), has echoing very archaic sentiments, mentioned as its exception clause- “Sexual intercourse by  man with his own wife, the wife not being under 15 years of age, is not rape.” Criminal charges of sexual assault may be triggered by other acts, which may include genital contact with the mouth or anus or the insertion of objects into the vagina or the anus, all without the consent of the victim. It is a conscious process of intimidation and assertion of the superiority of men over women.👉*There are many reasons such as husband believe in the superiority of men over women; some domestic issues, demand of women for her right in a marital relationship etc. Therefore, the main reason of this marital menace is a wide spread of gender inequality prevailing in our society. The male-dominated system of social norms where woman whether married or unmarried does not have the equal rights in any which way. It is the biggest weapon in hands of man to exploit the women. The role of traditionally assigned to married women in the society. Indian married women are considered as pativratastri means pure, faithful and obliging women. Thus married women have to follow her husband and fulfil all his requirements. The sexual relationship has been considered as an important part of the marriage, it is a woman’s duty towards her husband and she is not supposed to deny that to him. Her rile must be of submission and surrender. Economic dependence on her husband and in-laws is the reason that married women are unable to protect her from frequent practice of marital rape and she is forced to bear it. There must be strict laws for marital rape and the government should make some rules to reduce this problem.Rajabala

Homosexuality
 Rajabala Tripathy  
 1 April 2019  

Homosexuality:-Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender. When it comes to homosexuality, for many people the recurring idea is that it’s something unnatural. But what does unnatural really mean? The definition of the term is something that goes against natural or human laws especially in relation to morality. Homosexuality is normal and is noticed form the ancient times. Between two and eleven percent of human adults report experiencing some homosexual feelings, though the figure varies widely depending on the survey. Homosexuality exists across cultures and even throughout the animal kingdom. Between six and ten percent of rams prefer to mount other rams, not ewes. Certain groups of female Japanese monkeys prefer the company of other females, American bison, polecats or elephants, both males and females have been observed courting and mating with others the same sex. In the case of giraffes, nine out of ten couplings occur between males. Bonobos form matriarchal societies, where 60% of sexual relations occur between females. In lions, 8% of mating observed are among males, and in the case of dogs, numerous research studies affirm the existence of patterns of homosexual behavior. As for birds, all species that form parental relationships do so, to a greater or lesser extent, with members of the same sex. As many as a quarter of black swans are homosexual. Penguins have even struck up same-sex relationships in zoos in different parts of the world. Studies have shown that up to 85% of lesbian pairs are found in populations of western seagulls. And they’re not the only ones. Pigeons, vultures, ibis, lizards, sheep, macaques, hyenas, flies, dragonflies and countless other animal species are challenging the notion that homosexuality is “unnatural”.Sexual orientation is a very complex phenomenon. The exact cause of homosexuality is not know till now. But the reason can be understood from many scientific studies. In the case of a study of male twins, scheduled for presentation at the annual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) in Baltimore, Maryland, today, could help explain that paradox. It finds that epigenetic effects, chemical modifications of the human genome that alter gene activity without changing the DNA sequence, may have a major influence on sexual orientation. The gay gene has some association with regions of Chromosome 8 and with the Xq28 gene on the X chromosome.If Being Gay Is a Choice:-If you ask most gay people, they will tell you that being gay is not something they chose to be. It makes sense, as one has to wonder why anyone would choose to be something that could cause them to be scorned by society, rejected by their families, denied rights, and subjected to possible violent hate crimes. Many gays and lesbians would argue that being gay is not a choice, but whether to act on it is. We don’t choose our sexual orientation, but we do choose whether or not to come out of the closet. Most scientific organizations also believe that homosexuality is not a choice and that biology plays some role. The National Mental Health Association says that most researchers believe sexual orientation is complex, and that biology plays an important role. In other words, many people are either born with their sexual orientation or establish it at an early age.source: internetRajabala

Online Dating Site In India
 Charmi Patel  
 13 April 2019  
Art

Online Dating In India Site Serves People GloballyAs time is running, more people become singles. Some are already singles, never ever has dated anyone some used to stay single, some are heart-broken. But no one likes to be alone and feel lonely, that's why the market of online dating is growing rapidly.As per the survey, there are millions of people who are singles so the dating websites started to serve people globally. That means you can connect with not only Indian people but also with all country people. So if you are interested in dating foreigners, just try out online dating site in India. Or else, there are international apps, you can try them out as well.Now you will say, why to go for the dating site & waste your money when you have social media sites which let you connect free with the people you want to. But, understand that not everyone is using social media sites. But, it is possible that every single is using dating sites & an app. Online dating is trending in all other countries, apart from India.While the study says most dating sites have only men so the market is also struggling to create a site that attracts women. And talk about the US men, it says they are not at all romantic, and French people don't take dating serious, this might be bad news for Indian girls who want to date American men & settle down there. But yes, American men are practical, so they use proper methods with planning. Either it is for dating or for getting rich.Australians are not interested in dating, they feel shy about it. So if you go for a date with an Australian, then you will feel like you are hanging out with friends. There will be no such thing as dating. But, Brazilian couples value the passion of dating. And also found that traffic from India kept increasing day by day so sometimes dating companies feel surprised that they are receiving traffic from countries which they didn't even target. And now the online dating company StepOut has several Indian users. As StepOut focused on friendship, a term with which Indians are attached and feel comfortable with.Dating Apps Which Target International PeoplesTinder is the most popular online dating app, which has more than 50 million global users and by seeing the popularity of their app, they have expanded the market from the US to all parts of the world. Like, India, New Zealand, Singapore, Northern Europe, and Western Europe.Badoo is also a famous international dating app and has around 400 million users. And it is used by almost every country people but it's popularity in South America, Southern Europe, Eastern Euro, and other parts of Southeast Asia.Now, talking about dating sites for international daters then, there are various sites that come up with the free and paid version. Like, Match serves in 25 countries, Zoosk with 40 million daters, Eharmony with 2000 and above reviews, Elite Singles with 56% women & 44% men, OkCupid which made over 91 million connections, POF (Plenty Of Fish) which has 1 billion messages per month, and so on. The list is endless.So, by looking into this survey, it seems online dating in India looks convincing and the market grows rapidly. And yes, you can try local sites as well like, Bharat Matrimony, Truelove, IndianCupid, Woo, Azar, and so on. The list is endless.

All You Need To Know About Rail Freight Transportation
 Galagali Multimedia  
 24 April 2019  

In the era of freight transportation, ocean and air shipping play a major role in the logistics industry, but there’s one more mode that is usually underestimated – rail.Rail freight transportation has experienced                                                                                                                     dormancy from the 1980’s. The logistics world is varying, and it feels like rail is making a major comeback these days. Latest technology as well as innovations is disrupting every industry and all transportation modes.There are different changes and shifts in the logistics industry that leads to new demands and the requirement to deploy various transportation modes. Issues in the industry, such as the increasing demand of capacity, gas emissions, and the aging generation of drivers are the vital issues most logistics professionals face. Opting rail transportation for the freight may probably solve some of these issues.Greener TransportationThe most common advantage of rail over trucking is being less destructive to the environment. Rail can hold a much higher volume of freight as well as goes through a solid route than other transportation methods. As well, automation and faster transit times, in general, cause fewer carbon emissions into the environment.Eventually, rail can be an immense logistics solution for the business. It is continuously developing into a better way to transport goods and is an eco-friendly and well-organized solution among other transportation methods for your freight.TechnologyLatest technology innovations in rail transportation are at the point of development. Automation, big data, driver-less trains, IoT and artificial intelligence are the new tools striking rail transportation. For instance, the automated system PTC is previously used by 83.2% of the required Class I route miles nationwide and will be completely active by 2020. Many hard works are driven towards eliminating human labor as well as human errors.SafetyThe Association of American Railroads states that, the rate of accidents on railroads lessened by 23% since 1980. There are continuously higher investments being made into rail infrastructure that are raising the safety and efficiency of rail transportation. Rail provides a higher safety level due to less human involvement and the absence of highway congestion. Different technologies are being applied to enhance safety, one of them being Positive Train Control (PTC) – an automated system that slows or halts the train in the case of possible accident or human error.

Arts and Humanities- Prospects and Best Colleges
 Rageshree Sengupta  
 23 May 2019  

India is the country that has given birth to a variety of arts and cultures. The prospects of studying humanities have been increasing by the day. I can confidently say that studying the following streams, even though looked down upon by the Indian society, is a blissful experience. These are the sciences that deal with human beings, society and culture. If you planning a career in social science (any field), you have come to the right place. Let’s unleash the plethora of opportunities and build a dream career for you!1. Architecture:Even though it is often debated if B.Arch is art or a science degree, it is safe to say that it has traits of both. Architecture is the art and science of designing and planning buildings. It requires mathematical proficiency and creative thinking. Planning and architecture have been the very foundation of urban life.Career Prospects:Technical Architect: Information Technology based specifications, models and managementDesign Architect: Creative drawing and planning of the basic structure of the buildingInterior Designing: construction documents, furniture layouts, power and communications, designs, materials and finishes.Top Colleges:Department of Planning and Architecture (Delhi)Indian Institute of Technology (Kharagpur)Sir JJ College of Architecture (Mumbai)Manipal Institute of Technology (Manipal)Chandigarh College of Architecture (Chandigarh)BIT- Birla Institute of Technology (Mesra)2. Classics:The course on classics is an interdisciplinary study of literature, society and culture of Greeks and Romans (both ancient and modern). It is a popular course in humanities in foreign countries, especially Europe. Study of classics in India can help us understand the dynamics of various ancient civilisations, literature, linguistics, history, archaeology, epics, philosophy, religious studies and so on.Career prospects:Museum and gallery curatorSharing expertise through teaching and research in universitiesSharing subject knowledge in legal firmsJournalism, editorial assistant and content writingTop Colleges:Nalanda University (Rajgir)Serampore University (Kolkata)University of Mumbai (Mumbai)Aligarh Muslim University (Aligarh)Madras Christian College (Chennai)3. English Literature:English literature examines various literary works such as prose, poetry, drama etc. It was initially restricted to Britain but today it is one of the most popular choices of social science graduates all over the world. It analyses the growth of literature, Indian, British and American, novels, authors, writing styles and impact of literature in the modern world.Career prospects:Web content writing, digital copywriting, editing, publishing, translating and authorshipJournalism, Social media manager, newspaper and magazine journalistLecturer, education consultant, information officer and tutorTop Colleges:University of Delhi (Delhi)Jawaharlal Nehru University (Delhi)Jamia Millia Islamia University (Delhi)English and Foreign Languages University (Hyderabad)Loyola College (Chennai)4. Fashion & Designing:This course needs no introduction! Many of us aspire to be even half as creative as designers. With multiple career options after a degree, fashion and designing have become one of the most sought after course in India as well as abroad. It mainly focuses on beauty, fashion, costume designing, graphic designing and so on.Career prospects:Fashion designing: costumes, accessories, fabrics, designs, textures and style outfits.Retail buyer: business and management, working in the fashion marketStylist: Picking out the best from a wardrobe/designer’s collection, makeup and hairstylist- magazines, weddings, photographers, models etc.Top Colleges:NIFT – National Institute of Fashion Technology (Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata...)Pearl Academy (Delhi)Symbiosis Institute of Design (Pune)Vogue Institute of Art and Design (Bangalore)5. Fine arts and Performing arts: If your passion is to build a creative career then this is the choice for you. Every moment will be joyous but the rising competition in this field is also a matter of concern. This course needs hard work and perseverance to make it big. Fine arts/Visual arts include drawing, painting, sculpture, graphics, film studies, photography, music, poetry, conceptual art etc. Performing arts include theatre, music and dance (western and classical).Career prospects:Broadcasting, film and mediaMusic, dance and theatreScreenwriter, actor, producer etcArts administratorExhibition and graphic designerCommercial art gallery managerTop Colleges:Annamalai University (Tamil Nadu)IPS- Indore Professional Studies Academy (Indore)Savithri Phule Pune UniversityRoyal Global University (Guwahati)Parul Institute of Fine Arts (Vadodara)5. Geography:Human geography mainly covers the study of people, communities, cultures and their interaction with the environment. It is a much sought after course for nature-lovers and graduates who are keen on making a difference in the environment.Career prospects:Cartographer and map illustratorEnvironment consultant, town planner, landscape architect etcRecycling/Conservation officerLecturer or ProfessorTop Colleges:Fergusson College (Pune)Symbiosis College of Arts and Commerce (Pune)Banaras Hindu University (Varanasi)University of Delhi (Delhi)6. History & Archaeology:One of the most wondrous branches of social science is the study of the human past, ancient and modern civilisations. While history uses written sources, archaeology focuses on the remains to decipher the events that have occurred in the past. This course helps us understand the implications of history and how it has shaped our unique cultures. This is perhaps the most popular course in social science in foreign countries.Career prospects:Civil service administrator, solicitor and archivistAcademic librarian, journalist and heritage managerLecturing and tutoringTop Colleges:Loyola College (Chennai)Lady Shri Ram College (Delhi)Miranda House College (Delhi)Presidency College (Chennai)Institute of Archaeology (Noida)7. Language and Linguistics:Does your passion tell you to challenge the monotony of your tongue? If yes, this is the best course for you. There are nearly 1,652 languages in India and several others in the world. Ancient languages such as Greek, Latin, Arabic, Sanskrit etc have great prospects in modern society.Career prospects:Teaching English as a foreign languageLexicographerPublishing, copywriting, editing and proofreadingSpeech and language therapistTop Colleges:Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages (Hyderabad)Jawaharlal Nehru University (Delhi)University of Calcutta (Kolkata)Aligarh Muslim University (Aligarh)University of Kerala (Thiruvananthapuram)8. Law & Legal Studies:Are you interested in the legal/judicial system of our country? It is time for you to save this world from criminals and law-breaking persons. Let’s discuss LLB and LLM. These courses mainly give you an overview of the laws in the constitution, rights and duties, quantitative analysis and problem solving, judicial system of not only but also other countries and international relations.Career prospects:Paralegal, Arbitrator, Jury consultant, attorney, case managerCivil services administratorLegal analyst and assistant, social activist, legal services director etcA judge or advocateTop Colleges:National Law School of India University (Bangalore)National Law University (Delhi)NALSAR University of Law (Hyderabad)The West Bengal University of Juridical Sciences (Kolkata)The National Law Institute University (Bhopal)ILS- Indian Law Society’s Law College (Pune)9. Philosophy:It consists of classical and contemporary philosophical writings, the nature of truth, knowledge, mindfulness of the soul and body, the difference between right and wrong, the existence of God etc. It represents the poetic form of one’s life.Career prospects:Business, finance, marketing and salesProviding subject knowledge at legal firmsJournalism- newspapers and magazinesTop colleges:Lady Shri Ram College (Delhi)Loyola College (Chennai)Christ University (Bangalore)Miranda House (Delhi)Jawaharlal Nehru University (Delhi)10. Politics and International Relations:India, being one of the largest growing nations in the world, seeks graduates who are willing to take studies relating to the position of India with respect to other countries. This course requires extensive knowledge of current affairs, the political and legal system, different national and international organisations, economic development, and trade relations with other countries and so on.Career prospects:Legal consultant and policy analystLegislative assistantPublic relations specialist and social researcherMarket research analystCivil service fast streamerTop Colleges:Jawaharlal Nehru University (Delhi)Jadavpur University (Kolkata)Christ University (Bangalore)South Asian University (Delhi)Madras Christian College (Chennai)11. Psychology:The human mind often baffles us. In this modern world, it is very important to know what goes on in that little device of ours. Psychology helps us learn and examine the various clinical, behavioural and emotional aspects of the human brain. It is a highly recommended career choice for most social science graduates.Career prospects:Psychiatrist, career counsellor, probation and parole officerAdvertising agent and market researcherHuman resources professionalLaboratory AssistantTop Colleges:Lady Shri Ram College (Delhi)Jesus and Mary College (Delhi)St. Xavier's College (Mumbai)Presidency College (Chennai)Christ University (Bangalore)Mithibai College of Arts (Mumbai)Gargi College (Delhi)12. Social work:Is caring for humanity your most cherished skill? If helping and assisting others in need gives you pleasure then this is the perfect course for you. It gives you an opportunity to learn the technical aspects of social work. It includes cultural diversity, social institutions, underprivileged groups, human behaviour and education.Career prospects:Nursing in hospitals and clinics, medical and psychiatric social work- mental health counsellor, family/marriage therapist, speech pathologist etcChild welfare services and health educatorSocial/Community Service ManagerTop Colleges:Tata Institute of Social Sciences (Mumbai)University of Delhi (Delhi)Rajagiri College for Social Sciences (Kochi)Loyola College (Chennai)Christ University (Bangalore)13. Sociology & Anthropology:A course in sociology/anthropology will give you the ultimate guide to the knowledge of human society.  It comprises family, education, religion, social institutions and associations, culture and traditions of the society etc. It is highly sought after course in India and other countries.Career prospects:Guidance counsellor and journalismHuman Resources Representative, lawyer, policy analyst, social activism etcManagement consultant, public policy analyst, market research analyst and media plannerHuman services administration, social work, education and law enforcementTop Colleges:Loyola College (Chennai)Miranda College (Delhi)Christ University (Bangalore)Hindu College (Delhi)Hansraj College (Delhi)Punjab University (Chandigarh)Ashoka University (Sonipat)

European quiz championship 2019
 saurabh pant  
 12 June 2019  
Art

This tournament is a prolifically organised tournament for the visually impaired quizzers from all acrossthe globe that takes place in gap of every 4 year in the capital of England that is known amongst all as theroyal city of London.First organised back in 1951, it has expanded it's reach and has become a key source for those who wishto be part of it and can become grand people by participating in such a historic tournament that has it'sown follower, unique cultural essence and impressive track record with best teams competing from allover the world.Generally it has 10 separate groups in which 8 teams are consisted in each group and in all of them 80teams come together to participate as 80 countries that makes it a grand tournament in it's royal approachfor we the VI community.Since it's beginning back in 1951, the tournament has taken great leaps and its well-frame and organisedby Royal Commonwealth committee for the Blind, RNIB and other institutes in their virtual approach thatultimately makes it a remarkable tournament the way they take things to right direction and make it'ssuccess commendable.Although without dout International Quiz federation has it's own role to play in organising such acompetitive tournament, credits can't be taken away also from quiz federations of all 80 countries whoshow their trust and make this tournament a grand one, only bigger second to Quiz world cup, and showshow great this royal tournament has been for the VI people.In this way organisations are many who are behind the scene and also BBC networks Community channelcovers the tournament, like it does the Quiz world cup, thence the way things span out and authoritiesarrange great platforms both for stay and hospitality, and all are helpful that makes it a great one.As far the legacy of being champion to such a grand tournament is concerned, the home country havetaste of winning it twice and besides England, Belgium, Norway, Spain and Austria have also been thechampion of the tournament in past having those fond memories for themselves.Besides in context of the American legacy countries like Mexico, Canada and Nicaragua have cherishedthe joy of making through for the cup and winning it on certain times making it a cracking one.Further in context of Asia, countries like Combodia, Uzbekistan and China has been part of the glory ofsuch a tournament and their visually impaired people have done great to make through and be victoriousin the tournament.Though India hasn't have the chance yet to be victorius in such a grand tournament and in 2019 inleadership of champion Mr. saurabh Pant from nainital with a very strong team lineup, they may wish tofulfil their will to win this tournament making the mark.In context of the process of the tournament, there are certain rounds by which the challenging teams haveto go through and as the days go by team count starts to thin and some of the best remain to combat thebest moment to cherish.In the 1st round, there are two days to follow in which both days the competing teams have to be with thebraile round and both days have 4 rounds in total with 2 braille rounds particularly on the go by which onthe basis of the answers given teams who come last have to go home packing their bags.Once the braille rounds are over, the typing round on computer through screen readers like JAWS orSupernova begins and there in process of 1 day two segments of typing round come by in which thelowest scoring teams once again have to leave back for the home.Ultimately the knock out round starts through mike round on stage in which best team face each other andafter quarters, Semis and, at last through finals the decision of the winner is announced which isphenomenal.Thus by such measures in step by step process the whole tournament goes on and it's 5 day hecticschedule makes it a great memory to cherish specially for those who become the ultimate winners.There are also certain fields which a quizzer participating in such grand tournament has to prepare andthey come in different patterns according to the stage.The 1st day covers 'International relations' in which topics like Current Affairs, Global Issues, nativehistories, European-Asian relations and many other are basically covered.On day 2 the issues related to Environment come to face in which topics like European commitments,European chemicals, subsidiary alliances, Europe-Arctic tendencies and gglobal formulas are covered.On day 3 things become more tight and topics related to 'Sports' are covered in which Cricket, Football,Outdoor games, Olympics, Commonwealth and others are covered.And lastly in the knock out stage, spontaneous response matters more than anything where any field cancome to hit the target and best tteams with most prolific speed comes to act to have success.Ultimately it is a tournament to watch out and as International sport-interested people may be busywatching the Cricket world cup that is on progress, there is some nice chance for them to also enjoy ourquiz tournament who's fixtures are not going to clash after great commitments by the International quizfedeeration and the Royal Commonwealth Committee and it is a great way to enjoy them along.As an Indian, I can insure that it will be going to be a cracker in all ways where around 80 countries willdisplay their great community tallent and it is also to explore how we the visually impaired people gettogether, enjoy such academic sport-festivals and make them great.Though I am not going to promise whether our certain team will win or that certain team will be on top,One thing I can promise from all the UK quiz loving people that you will get complete entertainment.And I hope that you will all come in huge numbers supporting your legeandary quiz tournament also tomake it a great one...