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Arts and Humanities- Prospects and Best Colleges
 Rageshree Sengupta  
 23 May 2019  

India is the country that has given birth to a variety of arts and cultures. The prospects of studying humanities have been increasing by the day. I can confidently say that studying the following streams, even though looked down upon by the Indian society, is a blissful experience. These are the sciences that deal with human beings, society and culture. If you planning a career in social science (any field), you have come to the right place. Let’s unleash the plethora of opportunities and build a dream career for you!1. Architecture:Even though it is often debated if B.Arch is art or a science degree, it is safe to say that it has traits of both. Architecture is the art and science of designing and planning buildings. It requires mathematical proficiency and creative thinking. Planning and architecture have been the very foundation of urban life.Career Prospects:Technical Architect: Information Technology based specifications, models and managementDesign Architect: Creative drawing and planning of the basic structure of the buildingInterior Designing: construction documents, furniture layouts, power and communications, designs, materials and finishes.Top Colleges:Department of Planning and Architecture (Delhi)Indian Institute of Technology (Kharagpur)Sir JJ College of Architecture (Mumbai)Manipal Institute of Technology (Manipal)Chandigarh College of Architecture (Chandigarh)BIT- Birla Institute of Technology (Mesra)2. Classics:The course on classics is an interdisciplinary study of literature, society and culture of Greeks and Romans (both ancient and modern). It is a popular course in humanities in foreign countries, especially Europe. Study of classics in India can help us understand the dynamics of various ancient civilisations, literature, linguistics, history, archaeology, epics, philosophy, religious studies and so on.Career prospects:Museum and gallery curatorSharing expertise through teaching and research in universitiesSharing subject knowledge in legal firmsJournalism, editorial assistant and content writingTop Colleges:Nalanda University (Rajgir)Serampore University (Kolkata)University of Mumbai (Mumbai)Aligarh Muslim University (Aligarh)Madras Christian College (Chennai)3. English Literature:English literature examines various literary works such as prose, poetry, drama etc. It was initially restricted to Britain but today it is one of the most popular choices of social science graduates all over the world. It analyses the growth of literature, Indian, British and American, novels, authors, writing styles and impact of literature in the modern world.Career prospects:Web content writing, digital copywriting, editing, publishing, translating and authorshipJournalism, Social media manager, newspaper and magazine journalistLecturer, education consultant, information officer and tutorTop Colleges:University of Delhi (Delhi)Jawaharlal Nehru University (Delhi)Jamia Millia Islamia University (Delhi)English and Foreign Languages University (Hyderabad)Loyola College (Chennai)4. Fashion & Designing:This course needs no introduction! Many of us aspire to be even half as creative as designers. With multiple career options after a degree, fashion and designing have become one of the most sought after course in India as well as abroad. It mainly focuses on beauty, fashion, costume designing, graphic designing and so on.Career prospects:Fashion designing: costumes, accessories, fabrics, designs, textures and style outfits.Retail buyer: business and management, working in the fashion marketStylist: Picking out the best from a wardrobe/designer’s collection, makeup and hairstylist- magazines, weddings, photographers, models etc.Top Colleges:NIFT – National Institute of Fashion Technology (Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata...)Pearl Academy (Delhi)Symbiosis Institute of Design (Pune)Vogue Institute of Art and Design (Bangalore)5. Fine arts and Performing arts: If your passion is to build a creative career then this is the choice for you. Every moment will be joyous but the rising competition in this field is also a matter of concern. This course needs hard work and perseverance to make it big. Fine arts/Visual arts include drawing, painting, sculpture, graphics, film studies, photography, music, poetry, conceptual art etc. Performing arts include theatre, music and dance (western and classical).Career prospects:Broadcasting, film and mediaMusic, dance and theatreScreenwriter, actor, producer etcArts administratorExhibition and graphic designerCommercial art gallery managerTop Colleges:Annamalai University (Tamil Nadu)IPS- Indore Professional Studies Academy (Indore)Savithri Phule Pune UniversityRoyal Global University (Guwahati)Parul Institute of Fine Arts (Vadodara)5. Geography:Human geography mainly covers the study of people, communities, cultures and their interaction with the environment. It is a much sought after course for nature-lovers and graduates who are keen on making a difference in the environment.Career prospects:Cartographer and map illustratorEnvironment consultant, town planner, landscape architect etcRecycling/Conservation officerLecturer or ProfessorTop Colleges:Fergusson College (Pune)Symbiosis College of Arts and Commerce (Pune)Banaras Hindu University (Varanasi)University of Delhi (Delhi)6. History & Archaeology:One of the most wondrous branches of social science is the study of the human past, ancient and modern civilisations. While history uses written sources, archaeology focuses on the remains to decipher the events that have occurred in the past. This course helps us understand the implications of history and how it has shaped our unique cultures. This is perhaps the most popular course in social science in foreign countries.Career prospects:Civil service administrator, solicitor and archivistAcademic librarian, journalist and heritage managerLecturing and tutoringTop Colleges:Loyola College (Chennai)Lady Shri Ram College (Delhi)Miranda House College (Delhi)Presidency College (Chennai)Institute of Archaeology (Noida)7. Language and Linguistics:Does your passion tell you to challenge the monotony of your tongue? If yes, this is the best course for you. There are nearly 1,652 languages in India and several others in the world. Ancient languages such as Greek, Latin, Arabic, Sanskrit etc have great prospects in modern society.Career prospects:Teaching English as a foreign languageLexicographerPublishing, copywriting, editing and proofreadingSpeech and language therapistTop Colleges:Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages (Hyderabad)Jawaharlal Nehru University (Delhi)University of Calcutta (Kolkata)Aligarh Muslim University (Aligarh)University of Kerala (Thiruvananthapuram)8. Law & Legal Studies:Are you interested in the legal/judicial system of our country? It is time for you to save this world from criminals and law-breaking persons. Let’s discuss LLB and LLM. These courses mainly give you an overview of the laws in the constitution, rights and duties, quantitative analysis and problem solving, judicial system of not only but also other countries and international relations.Career prospects:Paralegal, Arbitrator, Jury consultant, attorney, case managerCivil services administratorLegal analyst and assistant, social activist, legal services director etcA judge or advocateTop Colleges:National Law School of India University (Bangalore)National Law University (Delhi)NALSAR University of Law (Hyderabad)The West Bengal University of Juridical Sciences (Kolkata)The National Law Institute University (Bhopal)ILS- Indian Law Society’s Law College (Pune)9. Philosophy:It consists of classical and contemporary philosophical writings, the nature of truth, knowledge, mindfulness of the soul and body, the difference between right and wrong, the existence of God etc. It represents the poetic form of one’s life.Career prospects:Business, finance, marketing and salesProviding subject knowledge at legal firmsJournalism- newspapers and magazinesTop colleges:Lady Shri Ram College (Delhi)Loyola College (Chennai)Christ University (Bangalore)Miranda House (Delhi)Jawaharlal Nehru University (Delhi)10. Politics and International Relations:India, being one of the largest growing nations in the world, seeks graduates who are willing to take studies relating to the position of India with respect to other countries. This course requires extensive knowledge of current affairs, the political and legal system, different national and international organisations, economic development, and trade relations with other countries and so on.Career prospects:Legal consultant and policy analystLegislative assistantPublic relations specialist and social researcherMarket research analystCivil service fast streamerTop Colleges:Jawaharlal Nehru University (Delhi)Jadavpur University (Kolkata)Christ University (Bangalore)South Asian University (Delhi)Madras Christian College (Chennai)11. Psychology:The human mind often baffles us. In this modern world, it is very important to know what goes on in that little device of ours. Psychology helps us learn and examine the various clinical, behavioural and emotional aspects of the human brain. It is a highly recommended career choice for most social science graduates.Career prospects:Psychiatrist, career counsellor, probation and parole officerAdvertising agent and market researcherHuman resources professionalLaboratory AssistantTop Colleges:Lady Shri Ram College (Delhi)Jesus and Mary College (Delhi)St. Xavier's College (Mumbai)Presidency College (Chennai)Christ University (Bangalore)Mithibai College of Arts (Mumbai)Gargi College (Delhi)12. Social work:Is caring for humanity your most cherished skill? If helping and assisting others in need gives you pleasure then this is the perfect course for you. It gives you an opportunity to learn the technical aspects of social work. It includes cultural diversity, social institutions, underprivileged groups, human behaviour and education.Career prospects:Nursing in hospitals and clinics, medical and psychiatric social work- mental health counsellor, family/marriage therapist, speech pathologist etcChild welfare services and health educatorSocial/Community Service ManagerTop Colleges:Tata Institute of Social Sciences (Mumbai)University of Delhi (Delhi)Rajagiri College for Social Sciences (Kochi)Loyola College (Chennai)Christ University (Bangalore)13. Sociology & Anthropology:A course in sociology/anthropology will give you the ultimate guide to the knowledge of human society.  It comprises family, education, religion, social institutions and associations, culture and traditions of the society etc. It is highly sought after course in India and other countries.Career prospects:Guidance counsellor and journalismHuman Resources Representative, lawyer, policy analyst, social activism etcManagement consultant, public policy analyst, market research analyst and media plannerHuman services administration, social work, education and law enforcementTop Colleges:Loyola College (Chennai)Miranda College (Delhi)Christ University (Bangalore)Hindu College (Delhi)Hansraj College (Delhi)Punjab University (Chandigarh)Ashoka University (Sonipat)

Women’s Changing Roles in the Military
 Jane Summers  
 12 July 2019  
Art

About the author: Jane Summers is a professional writer at the https://prime-essay.net writing service. She researches a diversity of topics and composes it into her blog, where she shares useful tips, writing guidelines and many other interactive issues. The topic of female presence in the army has always been controversial. At first, during wars, women were working as nurses, cooks, spies, and couriers among others. It was not official, many of them were injured or killed, but when they decided to take their responsibilities, they had a strong desire to help the military. Some of them even changed clothes and fought on the battlefield alongside with men. They felt like it was their duty, but still they wanted to hide their activity.Times have changed and in the twentieth century new movements arose that demanded more rights for women, better integration in different working areas, and empowerment in general. It was related to the topic of women in the army as well. Feminist ideas stated that men and women have to be equal in all areas of life. At the same time, some conservative points of view were powerful. The supporters of this view preferred a traditional image of the society and its institutions, where men are obligated to be active in social life and defend country, while women needed to do the housework, take care of all of the family, give birth to children and bring them up.Nowadays, women are present in military forces, but many questions remain. For instance, why are there still more soldiers than officers among women? At the same time most of them are even not allowed to stay on the battlefield and have real practice. Obviously, it is closely attached to some gender issues and stereotypes. One of them is that men always are physically stronger and are better leaders than women. Nevertheless, trainings showed that the equal number of males and females can manage tasks and be appropriate units for the military. Last news informed that women would be allowed to serve in combat – infantry, ground, and some special operations in 2016. The question may be topical for many years, because now there are many female units fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan, and at the same time many women want to learn military skills.The main point of the article called “Women In Combat Roles In US Military: Still A Small Step To Equality,” written by Fitriani and Ron Matthews, is that the society should not underestimate the importance of women for military even before giving them possibilities to join it in any role. The article provides an example of countries where women are essential part of the armed forces – Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Israel, Germany, Norway, Netherlands, Romania, Poland, South Korea, and Sweden.The authors prove that the US armed forces are trying to minimize the contact of female units with the enemy. They believe that it is not fair and all restrictions to serve in combat units need to be outdone. In addition, it is stated that most of women in the army are not leaders but mainly low-ranking. It was also mentioned that many women were killed or wounded during operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Besides, there are some cases of discrimination and sexual harassment in the military. The view that is against the presence of women in the army is concentrated on some moral, safety, and gender issues, but mostly it is prejudiced, as the authors prove.In summary, the authors think that all military positions need to be available to women. At the same time, they admit that there are some positive changes: the key is not to dismiss the leadership and strength that women can bring to the armed forces before they are given the opportunity to prove themselves. Feminist theory seeks to understand the nature of gender inequality and it focuses on the issues of politics, power, and sexuality. Political activity of feminists is concentrated on such issues as the rights of reproduction, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, discrimination, and sexual violence. Themes explored in feminism include discrimination, stereotyping, objectification (especially sexual objectification), oppression, and patriarchy.Feminist theory is based on the idea that all consciousness of modern people regardless of gender, are imbued with the ideas and values of masculine ideologies with their male chauvinism, the priority of masculinity, logic, and rationalism. This axiomatic fact of the modern culture explains the need for a feminist to revise the traditional views as well as the need to create the history of women's literature and defend the sovereignty of femininity that does not fit into the male logic.Thus, feminist studies have broad issues: the reconstruction of women's history and women's literary tradition audit patriarchal canons and stereotypes, finding new gender roles, the nature of women's text and the text perception female recipient, the destruction of patriarchal samples language, the problem of women in post-colonial situation and in terms of cultural imperialism, and others. Such a wide range of shows are the basis of the principles of the feminist criticism methodological diversity.Another sociological theory is critical theory which includes a number of approaches and theoretical discourse. Besides, it closely examines and criticizes the society and culture drawing on the knowledge of social sciences and humanities.Literally, the term "critical theory" gathers under a variety of approaches and knowledge based on criticism and reflexive attitude towards knowledge or the current situation in any region. Besides, it is trying to "explain the origin of the objects of his knowledge.Critical theory, in its broadest sense, does not refer to a specific theory or a complete research program but to the discourse" different "in its origin, content, direction, etc. Among these discourses, the ones that are commonly mentioned are Marxism, the Frankfurt School, psychoanalysis, post-structuralism, feminism, post-colonialism, multiculturalism, the study of racism, sexism, ethnocentrism, and colonialism among others.Discursive diversity of "critical theory" is associated with cultural studies, the leitmotif of which is the consideration of cultural phenomena in terms of organizing their relations of domination and subordination related to gender, class, race, etc. Cultural forms, phenomena, and processes are not seen as secondary education depending on the institutional forms or political or economic organization but as a dynamic force.The current situation masks inequality in international relations, and rationalism takes it a priori. Theorists did not seek to explore international or internal system states. They carried out research for political purposes of liberation of humanity from the despotic structures, world politics and economics, which are controlled by hegemonic forces. In this perception of the international system, they were very close to the theoretical neo-Marxism, because they interpreted any knowledge as an instrument of policy. The most important conclusion of critical theory, which is that any theory is a reflection of some hidden interests and their authors, regardless of whether they realize it or not, is an instrument of political power.These two sociological theories are connected with each other, because feminist theory originated from critical theory. It was about seeing gender as a dynamic concept. Gender is not social prejudices, stereotypes, and expectations that public put on both sexes but a choice for which every individual has rights. Critical theory considers the discrimination of women in armed forces to be advantageous for men and the other people who have their own interest in it. It is not always necessary to compare these two theories, because the critical theory was the first and had great influence on feminist theory, because it stated that one should perceive reality and society critically. So, gender is not traits and abilities of men and women but their self-identification and possibilities.The authors demonstrate the reflection of feminist theory when they prove that women are equal to men and if a woman has a desire to defend her country, she has the right to join the military. The equality is shown in three ways:1) Women that are going to join the armed forces are not weaker than men.2) Women are able to be as good high-ranked officers as men.3) Most of women are still far from battlefield serving on traditional positions, but they are able to do more.The other important problems that are mentioned in the article are discrimination and sexual harassment that the armed forces can cope with if they provide appropriate conditions to avoid them.Regarding critical theory, the whole article questions beliefs about women in the army, widely considers the experience of the other countries, recalls how the status of women changed over the decades, and predicts what will happen in a few years. Besides, it provides many numbers and data given from different resources that help one to lead to own conclusions. In general, critical and feminist theories almost reached their aim to liberate women, by giving them the opportunity to work in different areas and providing comfortable conditions. However, there are still some areas that have unpredictable conditions and consequences for women – one of them is the armed forces. Probably, it will take much time to create special conditions for female units and change social beliefs, but one day women will be totally equal to men as defenders.