Image

Introduction

Every woman has a different menstrual cycle. Some women have cycles that begin and end around the same time every month with minor inconvenience, while other women have cycles that fluctuate. 


Menstrual disorders are problems related to a woman's normal menstrual cycle. Dr. Vani Cherukuri says the normal length of a woman's menstrual cycle is 28 days, but this varies between individuals. Irregular menstruation is when the length of the cycle is more than 35 days, or if the duration varies.


With each menstrual cycle, the endometrium (uterine lining) prepares itself to nourish a fetus. If fertilization doesn’t occur, the body sheds the endometrium during the monthly (on average) cycle. In some cases, irregularity can occur in this cycle, indicating any of the following menstrual disorders:


Types of Menstrual Disorders

Following are the various types of menstrual disorders having different signs and symptoms provided by Gynaecologists in Banjara Hills:

- Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

- Amenorrhea

- Dysmenorrhea

- Menorrhagia


1. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS):
PMS includes a wide variety of physical and psychological symptoms associated with a female’s menstrual cycle. These symptoms may last from a few hours to many days, and the types and intensity of symptoms can vary in individuals. A few symptoms of PMS include bloating, headaches, fatigue, painful breasts, fatigue, anger, anxiety, mood swings, crying and depression.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a much more severe form of PMS. The most common symptoms of PMDD include heightened irritability, anxiety and mood swings.


ALSO READ -  PMS – Signs & Tips To Control Them!


2. Amenorrhea

When female experiences no menstrual periods at all for more than three months that condition is called amenorrhea.  There are two types of amenorrhea:

- Primary amenorrhea: Menstruation does not begin at puberty.

- Secondary amenorrhea: Normal and regular menstrual periods which become increasingly abnormal and irregular or absent. 


3. Dysmenorrhea

Most women have experienced menstrual cramps at some point during their lives. But if your cramps are especially painful and persistent, this is called dysmenorrhea, and you should consult your health care professional.

Pain from menstrual cramps is caused by uterine contractions, triggered by prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that are produced by the uterine lining cells and circulate in your bloodstream.


4. Menorrhagia

Menorrhagia is the most common type of abnormal uterine bleeding and is characterized by heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding. Heavy menstrual bleeding can be caused by hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities in the uterus (such as poles or fibroids), other medical conditions (such as thyroid problems, blood clotting disorders, liver or kidney disease, leukemia, complications from IUD, miscarriage, and infections).


What Causes Various Menstrual Disorders?

The causes for menstrual disorder differs according to its type. Each menstrual disorder occurs because of the different medical problem.

#Causes Of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS):
PMS appears to be caused by rising and falling levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which may influence brain chemicals, including serotonin, a substance that has a strong effect on mood. 

As per Gynaecologists in Hyderabad, it's not clear why some women develop PMS or PMDD and others do not, but researchers suspect that some women are more sensitive than others to changes in hormone levels.


#Causes Of Amenorrhea (no menstrual periods):

Amenorrhea can occur for a number of reasons as part of the normal course of life, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding or menopause. 

It may also occur as a result of medications or a medical problem including
- Ovulation abnormality

- Birth defect, anatomical abnormality or other medical condition

- Eating disorder

- Obesity

- Excessive or strenuous exercise

- Thyroid disorder


#Causes Of Dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps):

If you have severe menstrual pain, you might also find you have some diarrhea or an occasional feeling of faintness where you suddenly become pale and sweaty. That's because prostaglandins speed up contractions in your intestines, resulting in diarrhea, and lower your blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels, leading to lightheadedness.

The cause of dysmenorrhea is dependent on if the condition is primary or secondary. With primary dysmenorrheal, women experience abnormal uterine contractions resulting from a chemical imbalance in the body. 

Secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by other medical conditions, most often endometriosis. Other possible causes may include: 

- pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

- uterine fibroids

- abnormal pregnancy (i.e., miscarriage, ectopic)

- infection, tumors, or polyps in the pelvic cavity

If you have severe menstrual pain, you might also find you have some diarrhea or an occasional feeling of faintness where you suddenly become pale and sweaty.


#Causes Of Menorrhagia (Heavy menstrual bleeding):

Heavy menstrual bleeding in women occurs because of 

- Hormonal imbalances

- Structural abnormalities in the uterus, such as polyps or fibroids

- Medical conditions

Many women with heavy menstrual bleeding can blame their condition on hormones.

Certain medical conditions like thyroid problems, blood clotting disorders, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), a liver or kidney disease, leukemia, medications, such as anticoagulant drugs such as Plavix (clopidogrel) or heparin and some synthetic hormones can cause heavy menstrual bleeding

Other gynecologic conditions that may be responsible for heavy bleeding include complications from an IUD, fibroids, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy.


Conclusion

Menstrual disorders are common in puberty and adolescence during the development of ovarian function and until a regular ovulatory cycle. Abnormalities of the type of bleeding (menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, hypermenorrhea) are treated symptomatically, mainly with hormonal approaches.

You can opt for various contraceptive pills or other treatment options, and if you have any major issues you can also consult a doctor online and get them treated.