This article is an attempt to provide lead for mass production of coronavirus vaccine (if the vaccines are produced by any research laboratories, clinically successful and approved by regulatory body like FDA). The unprecedented and unique spread of coronavirus has devastated the whole world and its economy. Scientists, research laboratories and governments are working hard to develop vaccine to combat the deadly disease. Once a reliable vaccine is produced, the next challenge will be to produce in large quantity and supply feasible dose units of vaccine across the globe. Based on primary understanding, we want to provide a lead, if human body can be used to produce further dose of vaccine, if artificially vaccine is injected to a person, his body may have capacity to produce transferable antigens to another human. This experiment also required theoretical study and assessment or evaluation of the result; i.e. practical aspects of possibility of production of antibody, its transferability, feasibility, safety, potency of antigens and immunity developed in the recipient.
Vaccines are used to create or improve immunity of a person. Immunity is the ability of the human body to tolerate the presence of material indigenous to the body (“self”), and to eliminate foreign (“nonself”) material. This discriminatory ability provides protection from infectious disease, since most microbes are identified as foreign by the immune system. Immunity to a microbe is usually indicated by the presence of antibody to that organism. Immunity is generally specific to a single organism or group of closely related organisms. There are two basic mechanisms for acquiring immunity, active and passive.
Active immunity is protection that is produced by the person’s own immune system. This type of immunity usually lasts for many years, often during a lifetime. Passive immunity is protection by products produced by an animal or human and transferred to another human, usually by injection or oral drops. Passive immunity often provides effective protection, but this protection wanes (disappears) with time, usually within a few weeks or months. Booster dose is required to reactivate immunity over a period of time.
Vaccines are like a training course for the immune system of the human body, which prepare the body to fight disease without exposing it to the actual disease. When any foreign particle or organisms such as bacteria or viruses enter the body, immune cells called lymphocytes respond by producing antibodies, which are protein molecules. These antibodies fight the foreign organisms known as an antigen and protect human body against further infection. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a healthy individual can produce millions of antibodies in a day, fighting infection so efficiently that people never even know they were exposed to an antigen. The vaccines are made of dead, weakened, altered antigens from the germ or its specific part. Vaccine can't cause an infection, but the immune system still sees them as an enemy and produces antibodies in response. After the threat has passed, many of the antibodies will break down, but immune cells called memory cells remain in the body for a very long period - may be the whole life of the vaccinated person.
When the body encounters that antigen again, the memory cells produce antibodies fast and strike down the germs (virus or bacteria) at the earliest. Vaccines also work on a community level. Some people can't be vaccinated, either because they are too young, or because their immune systems are too weak, according to the CDC. But if everyone around them is vaccinated, unvaccinated people are protected by something called herd immunity. They're unlikely to even come in contact with the disease, so they probably won't get sick. When it comes to vaccines, sometimes it can pay to follow the crowd.
The most effective immune responses are generally produced in response to a live antigen. However, an antigen does not necessarily have to be alive, as occurs with infection with a virus or bacterium, to produce an immune response. Another way to produce active immunity is by vaccination. Vaccines interact with the immune system and often produce an immune response similar to that produced by the natural infection, but they do not subject the recipient to the disease and its potential complications. Many vaccines also produce immunologic memory similar to that acquired by having the natural disease. Vaccines are primarily classified into (i) live attenuated and (ii) inactivated vaccine. It is sub-classified as subunit, conjugate, polysaccharide vaccines, recombinant vaccines and toxoid etc. based on part of the germ used in developing vaccine. The vaccines are produced in different environment and have different characteristics. Inactivated vaccines cannot be replicated and hence our discussion is focused on live attenuated vaccine if it can be produced in human body to take benefit of natural replication, economies of scale in production and eased supply chain. The additional benefit is to use existing infrastructure (natural, human body), hygienic conditions, and reduced cost and time of production. There are associated risks in natural production. Unlike artificial production facilities, human body may not give standardized results and quality control and other risks are to be considered. There is possibility of transmission of any communicable diseases if the blood or plasma of transferor is infected.
The following diagram gives glimpse of proposed production lead: