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Introduction

Infertility is a common problem of about 10% of women aged 15 to 44. Many women are not able to get pregnant because of infertily issues. Thes issues can be due to the woman, the man and by both sexes or due to unknown problems.

For treating infertility, In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most effective form of assisted reproductive technology. It is a complex series of procedures used to treat fertility or genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child.

It is the process of fertilization by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The embryo(s) is then transferred to the uterus.


What are the causes of infertility?

The causes of infertility differ between men and women. There are various reasons because of which one can’t fertile. Following are the various reasons for infertility in men and women provided by IVF Specialists in Jaipur:

#Causes of male infertility
These may include:

- Abnormal sperm production
Abnormal sperm production or function due to undescended testicles, genetic defects, health problems such as diabetes or infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, mumps or HIV. Enlarged veins in the testes (varicocele) can also affect the quality of sperm.

- Problems with the delivery of sperm
It is due to sexual problems, such as premature ejaculation; certain genetic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis; structural problems, such as a blockage in the testicle; or damage or injury to the reproductive organs.

- Overexposure to certain environmental factors
Various factors such as pesticides and other chemicals, and radiation. Cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana or taking certain medications, such as select antibiotics, antihypertensives, anabolic steroids or others, can also affect fertility. Frequent exposure to heat, such as in saunas or hot tubs, can raise the core body temperature and may affect sperm production.

- Damage related to cancer and its treatment, including radiation or chemotherapy. Treatment for cancer can impair sperm production, sometimes severely.

#Causes of female infertility
Causes of female infertility may include:

- Ovulation disorders
Thes affect the release of eggs from the ovaries. These include hormonal disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome. Hyperprolactinemia, a condition in which you have too much prolactin — the hormone that stimulates breast milk production — may also interfere with ovulation. Either too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism) or too little (hypothyroidism) can affect the menstrual cycle or cause infertility. Other underlying causes may include excessive exercise, eating disorders, injury or tumors.

- Uterine or cervical abnormalities
It includes abnormalities with the opening of the cervix, polyps in the uterus or the shape of the uterus. Noncancerous (benign) tumors in the uterine wall (uterine fibroids) may rarely cause infertility by blocking the fallopian tubes. More often, fibroids interfere with implantation of the fertilized egg.

- Fallopian tube damage or blockage
It is often caused by inflammation of the fallopian tube (salpingitis). This can result from pelvic inflammatory disease, which is usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection, endometriosis or adhesions.

- Endometriosis
This occurs when endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus, may affect the function of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes.

- Primary ovarian insufficiency (early menopause)
When the ovaries stop working and menstruation ends before age 40. Although the cause is often unknown, certain factors are associated with early menopause, including immune system diseases, certain genetic conditions such as Turner syndrome or carriers of Fragile X syndrome, radiation or chemotherapy treatment, and smoking.

- Pelvic adhesions, bands of scar tissue that bind organs after pelvic infection, appendicitis, or abdominal or pelvic surgery.

How IVF helps with infertility?

IVF Specialists in Bangalore says In vitro fertilization (IVF) helps with fertilization, embryo development, and implantation so you can get pregnant. It is a complex technique involving five basic steps:

- Superovulation
The first step in IVF involves injecting hormones so you produce multiple eggs each month instead of only one. You will then be tested to determine whether you're ready for egg retrieval.

- Egg retrieval and sperm collection.
Prior to the retrieval procedure, you will be given injections of a medication that ripens the developing eggs and starts the process of ovulation. Timing is important; the eggs must be retrieved just before they emerge from the follicles in the ovaries.

- Insemination and fertilization of the eggs by the sperm.
Immediately following the retrieval, your eggs will be mixed in the laboratory with your partner's sperm, which he will have donated on the same day.

- Embryo development and genetic testing (if needed).

While you and your partner go home, the fertilized eggs are kept in the clinic under observation to ensure optimal growth. Depending on the clinic, you may even wait up to five days until the embryo reaches a more advanced blastocyst stage.

- Embryo transfer into a woman’s uterus.

Once the embryos are ready, doctors can transfer one or more into your uterus. This procedure is quicker and easier than the retrieval of the egg. The doctor will insert a flexible tube called a catheter through your vagina and cervix and into your uterus, where the embryos will be deposited.

IVF has a high rate of success because it allows for a controlled interaction of eggs and sperm. Medications increase the number of mature eggs a woman can produce at a single time. Doctors can evaluate each developed embryo to determine which ones are most likely to result in pregnancy.


Conclusion
IVF can be a successful method in the treatment of infertility in women. Abnormal fertilization rate was similar in both men and women. A woman's age is a major factor in the success of IVF for any couple. For instance, a woman who is under age 35 and undergoes IVF more chances of having a baby compared to a woman over age 40. You can also consult a doctor online and get the details of treatment according to the age and other required factors.