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Are you curious about how tyres are made? Well, it is a long and complex process. Since tyres are an important component of a vehicle, an elaborate process is used to manufacture them. It is to ensure an adequate mix of performance and safety.


This blog/article explains the process of manufacturing a tyre. Here is the step-by-step process:


Step 1: Raw material 

The prerequisite to any type of manufacturing is raw material. Same is the case with tyres. The manufacturing of tyres usually requires the following raw materials: 


  • Steel
  • Chemicals 
  • Natural rubber
  • Textiles 


The above-mentioned raw materials are required to make essential components of a tyre. High-strength steel is used to make the steel cord. The chemical industry supplies us with substances like synthetic rubber. It is added to improve wear capacity, grip, and life of a tyre. Natural rubber is extracted out of plants. It needs to be noted that synthetic rubber and natural rubber is mixed in the tyre. Not only that, almost twelve different rubber compounds are used in modern tyres.


Step 2: Manufacturing the components 

A product cannot be directly manufactured. Prior to making a product, its components are manufactured. In case of tyres, the following components are manufactured:


  • Steel cord
  • Tread
  • Textile cord 
  • Steel bead
  • Sidewall
  • Inner liner 


For those of you who have some knowledge of tyres, some of those words must be familiar. Isn’t it astonishing to know that all these components are separately manufactured and then compiled together to form a tyre? It’s a marvel of modern-day technology! 


Before moving forward, it’s imperative to understand the importance of each tyre component. Here is a quick overview!


Steel cord

Pre-treat steel cord is embedded on multiple layers of rubber. The result is a continuous belt of cord and rubber. It is cut at a specific angle and length in accordance to the size specifications of a tyre. Finally, it is rolled up for further processing. The steel cord plays an important role in providing the tyre with a proper structure. 


Tread

The next step is to prepare the tread of a tyre. Blended rubber is shaped into an endless strip of tread with the help of a screw-type extruder. Following which, the weight per metre is measured and the tread is accordingly treated. Finally, tread strips are cut according to tyre size.


Textile cord

The calendar is fed textile threats with a roller and embedded into a layer of rubber. As a result, we get a sheet. This sheet is now to cut to a specified measurement at 90 degree angle. Not to forget, cutting it in the direction of travel is also paramount. Finally, it is rewound for further processing. 


Steels beads are made from ring-shaped steel wires with each of them having their own rubber coating. A rubber apex is then fitted with a loop. Like any other component made from rubber, the sidewall is also cut from rubber portions. The airline is made by the calendar. 


Step 3: Getting all of it together!

The third step of the tyre building process is tyre building. At this stage of tyre building, focus is given to the building of what is known as the “green tyre”. All the components are put together in a tyre building machine. The process has two steps- casing and tread/belt assembly. Finally, the green tyre is prepared. A special fluid is sprayed on it to make it ready for vulcanisation. 


Step 4: Vulcanisation 

This is the final stage of tyre manufacturing. In the end, the rubber is heated or vulcanised for a certain time period on a specific temperature and pressure. Vulcanisation ensures that the rubber is ready to be used as a tyre. It is made flexible and elastic. 


This was the four-step process of manufacturing a car tyres. Hopefully, this article/blog helped you with understanding the process